Form, Funding and Political Purposes of Urban Parks
This paper examines the political motivations behind the establishment of public urban parks in western Europe and the United States, and addresses issues affecting the funding of those parks. It does this through a chronological examination of park development, arguing that the physical form and facilities provided in parks reflect the purposes for which they were designated. As such, the form and purpose of parks therefore reflect, in their various forms and functions, the intentions and values of their funding agencies. The paper examines principal sources of funding for public parks, and documents current challenges in funding urban parks with public money.
City of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (2018). The Future of Newcastle’s Parks and Allotments. Retrieved from www.newcastle.gov.uk/leisure-libraries-and-tourism/parks-and-countryside/future-newcastles-parks-and-allotments (accessed 2018-07-23)
City of Hamburg (1997). Parkpflegewerk für den Hamburger Stadtpark: mittelfristige Pflege- und Entwicklungsplanung. Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Umweltbehörde.
Cranz, G. (1982). The Politics of Park Design. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Cranz, G. & Boland, M. (2004). 'Defining the Sustainable Park: A Fifth Model for Public Parks' in Landscape Journal, Volume 23, No 2. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 102-20.
De Michelis, M. (1991). The Green Revolution: Leberecht Migge and the Reform of the Garden in Modernist Germany. In Teyssot, G. & Mosser, M. (Eds). Op. cit. pp. 409-20.
Gopnik, A. (2018). After the fall: drawing the right lessons from the decline in violent crime. The Critics. Books. In The New Yorker, February 12-19) . 94 (1): 92–97.
Hasbrouk, W. R. (1970). Plan of Chicago by Daniel H. Burnham and Edward H. Bennett. New York: Da Capo Press.
Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects (1938). The Amsterdam Boschplan. in Volume 45, Third Series, No 14. pp. 681-9 (article acknowledged making free use of article by Dr Ing T.P. Byhouwer in the Dutch architectural journal de 8 en Opbouw, No 2, 1937).
Komara, A. (2009). Measure and Map: Alphand's Contours of Construction at the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont, Paris 1867. Landscape Journal, Vol. 28, No 1. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.
Lynn, R. & Morrone, F. (2013). Guide to New York City Urban Landscapes. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company.
Mobley, J. & Harris, N. (1991). A City Within a Park: One Hundred Years of Parks and Boulevards in Kansas City, Missouri. Washington DC: American Society of Landscape Architects.
Outdoor Urban Recreational Space (OURS) (n.d.) Retrieved from www.ours-winnipeg.com (accessed 2018-07-23).
Rogers, E.B. (2018). Saving Central Park: A History and a Memoir. New York: Knopf.
Sheffield Tree Action Group (STAG) (n.d.) Retrieved from www.savesheffieldtrees.org.uk/ (accessed 2018-07-23).
Tate, A. (2015 – Second Edition). Great City Parks. London and New York: Routledge.
Young, T. (2008). Building San Francisco's Parks, 1850-1930. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The author(s) hold their copyright without restrictions.