Sustainable High-rises: Design Strategies for Energy-efficient and Comfortable Tall Office Buildings in Various Climates

  • Babak Raji TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment

Abstract

With the aim to limit the number of ineffective designs, this dissertation has investigated the impact of architectural design strategies on improving the energy performance of and thermal comfort in high-rise office buildings in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical climates. As the starting-point of this research, a comparative study between twelve high-rise office buildings in three climate groups was conducted. For each climate group, three sustainable high-rises were selected and one typical high-rise design as a reference. The effectiveness of architectural design strategies was compared between the two categories of buildings (high-performance versus low-performance) concerning their potential impact on heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation loads. Certain architectural design strategies were found to be major determinants of energy performance in high-rise buildings. These can be classified under the categories of geometric factors, envelope strategies, natural ventilation strategies, and greenery systems. To quantify the extent to which these architectural design strategies affect energy use and thermal comfort of tall office buildings, simulation studies were carried out.

To quantify the impact of geometric factors on the energy efficiency of high-rise office buildings, performance-based simulations were carried out for 12 plan shapes, 7 plan depths, 4 building orientations and discrete values for the window-to-wall ratio (WWR). The results of the total annual energy consumption (and different energy end-uses) were used to define the most and least efficient solutions. The optimal design solution is the one that minimises, on an annual basis, the sum of the energy use for heating, cooling, electric lighting and fans. The percentile difference - a deviation in the total energy use - between the most and least efficient design options showed the extent to which geometric factors can affect the energy use of the building. It was found that geometric factors could influence the energy use up to 32%. Furthermore, the recommended design options were classified according to their degree of energy performance for each of the climates.

The second group of strategies is related to the envelope design. To quantify their degree of influence, an existing tall office building was selected as a typical high-rise design for each of the climates and the energy use prior and after refurbishment was compared through computer simulations with DesignBuilder. The 21-storey EWI building in Delft, the Netherlands, is selected as the representative for the temperate climate and the 65-storey KOMTAR tower in George Town, Malaysia, for the tropical climate. As part of a sensitivity analysis, energy performance simulations defined façade parameters with higher impact on building energy consumption. A large number of computer simulations were run to evaluate the energy-saving potential of various envelope measures, as well as their combinations. The results showed which set of envelope measures suits each climate type best. Furthermore, it was found that the right combination of envelope strategies could reduce the total energy use of a conventional tall office building by around 42% in temperate climates and around 36% in tropical climates.

One other important difference between conventional and sustainable tall buildings is related to the application of natural ventilation. In this regard, the potential use of different natural ventilation strategies to reduce the energy demand for cooling and mechanical ventilation in high-rise buildings was investigated by using the same validated base models. The results showed that for a naturally ventilated tall office building in the temperate climate on average only 4% of the occupancy hours a supplementary air-conditioning system might be needed for providing thermal comfort during summer. For the tropical climate, the average percentage of discomfort hours (when air-conditioning is required to keep the indoor air temperature within the comfort limits) was around 16% of the occupancy hours during one year. In both climates, natural ventilation strategies could meet the minimum fresh air requirements needed for an office space for almost the entire period of occupancy hours; 96% in temperate climates and 98% in tropical climates.

The last important strategy that is becoming an integrated part of sustainable tall buildings is the use of greenery systems. The effects of greenery systems on the energy-efficiency, thermal comfort and indoor air quality of buildings were investigated by conducting a thorough literature review on five greenery concepts, including the green roof (GR), green wall (GW), green balcony (GB), sky garden (SG) and indoor sky garden (ISG). It was found that greenery systems have a limited impact for reducing the energy use of high-performance buildings. The maximum efficiency of greenery systems was reported during summer and for places with higher solar radiation and when integrated into buildings that have no solar control systems. However, other large-scale benefits for the urban environment (mitigation of CO2 concentration) and building residents (increased productivity and higher well-being) could justify the application of greenery systems as an essential sustainability feature for the design of tall office buildings.

To sum up, the architectural design is a determinant contributor to the performance of buildings and the comfort of occupants. The findings of this research were used to point out climate specific design strategies for tall office buildings in temperate and tropical climates. At the end of dissertation, a proposed model of an energy-efficient and comfortable high-rise office building for each of the investigated climates was illustrated. It is expected that the discussions and recommendations provided in this dissertation could form an acceptable starting point for improvements to tall building design and could be of assistance to make energy-wise decisions during the design process.

References

Chapter 1

Aksamija, A. (2012). BIM-Based Building Performance Analysis: Evaluation and Simulation of Design Decisions. Paper presented at the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings

ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140. (2011). Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs. In. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

Baharvand, M., Hamdan Bin Ahmad, M., Safikhani, T., & Binti Abdul Majid, R. (2013). DesignBuilder Verification and Validation for Indoor Natural Ventilation. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3(4), 182-189.

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Retrieved from (2012, November 22). Retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com

Chung, L. P., Ahmad, M. H. B. H., Ossen, D. R., & Hamid, M. H. (2014). Application of CFD in Prediction of Indoor Building Thermal Performance as an Effective Pre-Design Tool Towards Sustainability. World Applied Sciences Journal, 30, 269-279. doi:10.5829/idosi.wasj.2014.30.icmrp.35 Colaleo, V. (2003). Sustainability in numbers for technological building. Politecnico di Torino, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Turin, Italy.

Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved from (2002, November 22). Retrieved from: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/high-rise

CTBUH. (2014). CTBUH - A Historical Sketch. (2014, January 25). Retrieved from Retrieved from: http://www.ctbuh.org/AboutCTBUH/History/CTBUHOrigins/tabid/1279/language/en-US/Default.aspx

Dobbelsteen, A. v. d. (2012). High-rise buildings – a contribution to sustainable construction in the city? In H. Meyer & D. Zandbelt (Eds.), Highrise and the sustainable city. Amsterdam: Techne Press.

Dobbelsteen, A. v. d., Thijssen, S., Colaleo, V., & Metz, T. (2007). Ecology of the Building Geometry - Environmental Performance of Different Building Shapes. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the CIB World Building Congress 2007; CIB/CSIR, Cape Town, South Africa.

Eichholtz, P., Kok, N., & Quigley, J. M. (2013). The Economics of Green Building. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 95(1), 50-63. doi:10.1162/REST_a_00291

Emporis Standards. Retrieved from (2012, November 22). Retrieved from: https://www.emporis.com/building/standard/3/high-rise-building

European Commision. 2050 low-carbon economy. (2016, June 06). Retrieved from Retrieved from: https:// ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/strategies/2050_en

Fenske, G. (2013). A Brief History of the Twentieth-Century Skyscraper. In D. Parker & A. Wood (Eds.), The Tall Buildings Reference Book (pp. 13-31). London ; New York Routledge.

Gonçalves, J. C. S. (2010). The Environmental Performance of Tall Buildings. London, UK: Earthscan.

Green Building Council Australia. (2006). The Dollars and Sense of Green Buildings 2006: Building the Business Case for Green Commercial Buildings in Australia. Retrieved from Retrieved from: http://www.gbca.org.au/uploads/234/1002/Dollars%20and%20Sense%20of%20Green%20Buildings%202006.pdf

ISO 13790. (2008). Energy performance of buildings - Calculation of energy use for space heating and cooling. In: International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Jenks, M., Burton, E., & Williams, K. (1996). The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form? London E & FN Spon.

Lam, J. C., Chan, R. Y. C., Tsang, C. L., & Li, D. H. W. (2004). Electricity use characteristics of purpose-built office buildings in subtropical climates. Energy Conversion and Management, 45(6), 829-844. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(03)00197-3

Lucuik, M., Trusty, W., Larsson, N., & Charette, R. (2005). A Business Case for Green Buildings in Canada.Retrieved from Ontario: McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Retrieved from (2012, November 22). Retrieved from: https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com

Meyer, W. B., & Turner, B. L. (1992). Human Population Growth and Global Land-Use/Cover Change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 23(1), 39-61. doi:10.1146/annurev.es.23.110192.000351

Mumford, L. (1961). The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects: Harcourt, Brace & World. Northumbria University. (2011). An Inter-program Analysis of Computational Fluid Dynamics Based on PHOENICS and DesignBuilder Software. Retrieved from School of Built and Natural Environment: http://www.designbuilder.co.uk/version5/download/documents/31-designbuilder-cfd-validation-against-pheonics

Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved from (2012, November 22). Retrieved from: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/english

Salankar, S., Tauseef, S. M., & Sharma, R. K. (2016). Need for Better High-Rise Building Evacuation Practices. In N. A. Siddiqui, S. M. Tauseef, S. A. Abbasi, & A. S. Rangwala (Eds.), Advances in Fire and Process Safety: Select Proceedings of HSFEA 2016 (pp. 191-206). Singapore: Springer

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th edition. Retrieved from (2012, November 22).Retrieved from: https://www.wordnik.com/words/high-rise

Thomas, L., & Cousins, W. (1996). The Compact City: A Successful, Desirable and Achievable Urban Form? In M. Jenks, E. Burton, & K. Williams (Eds.), The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form? (pp. 44-55). London: Routledge.

United Nations. (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/352).Retrieved from New York: Wade, J., Pett, J., & Ramsay, L. (2003). Energy efficiency in offices: Motivating Action. Retrieved from London: Watts, S. (2013). Tall Building Economics. In D. Parker & A. Wood (Eds.), The Tall Buildings Reference Book (pp. 49-70). London ; New York Routledge.

Wikipedia. Retrieved from (2012, November 22). Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-rise_building

Yeang, K. (1999). The green skyscraper : the basis for designing sustainable intensive buildings. Munich: Prestel.

Yuen, B. (2005, 6 – 8 December ). The shifting paradigms of high-rise living. Paper presented at the Tall Buildings from Engineering to Sustainability, Hong Kong, China.




Chapter 2

ASHRAE Standard 55. (2010). Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy. Atlanta, GA.

BizEE Software Ltd. Custom Degree Day Data. (2018, May 20). Retrieved from: http://www.degreedays.net.

Chikamoto, T., Kato, S. & Ikaga, T. (1999). Hybrid Air-Conditioning System at Liberty Tower of Meiji University.

IEA-ECBCS Annex 35: Natural and Hybrid Ventilation, 3rd expert meeting, Sydney, Australia, 28 September – 1 October.

Dassler, F.H., Sobek, W., Reuss, S., Schuler, M. (2003). Post Tower in Bonn: State of the Art. XIA Intelligente Architektur, vol. 41, pp. 22-37.

CEN Standard EN 15251. (2007). Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics. CEN, Brussels.

Fairuz Syed Fadzil, S., and Sia, S.-J. (2004). “Sunlight control and daylight distribution analysis: the KOMTAR case study.” Building and Environment, 39(6), 713-717.

Gonçalves, J., & Bode, K. (2010). Up in the air. CIBSE Journal, December, pp. 32-34.

Gonçalves, J. C. S., & Umakoshi, E. M. (2010). The environmental performance of tall buildings. Washington, DC: Earthscan.

Ismail, L.H. (2007). “An evaluation of bioclimatic high-rise office buildings in a tropical climate: energy consumption and users’ satisfaction in selected office buildings in Malaysia.” PhD thesis, University of Liverpool, p. 329.

ISO Standard 7730. (2005). Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria, 3rd edition.

Jahnkassim, P.S., Ip, K. (2006). “Linking bioclimatic theory and environmental performance in its climatic and cultural context – an analysis into the tropical high-rises of Ken Yeang.” PLEA 2006 - The 23rd Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Geneva, Switzerland, 6-8 September.

Jenkins, D. (2004). “Commerzbank Headquarters” in Norman Foster Works 4. Prestel: Munich, pp. 35-87.

Jenkins, D. (2009). “Swiss Re Headquarters” in Norman Foster Works 5. Prestel: Munich, pp. 486-537.

Johnson Controls. (2013). Empire State Building, performance year 2 M&V report (August 15, 2013). Retrieved from: http://www.esbnyc.com/sites/default/files/2013_esb_y2_full_report.pdf

Kato, S., & Chikamoto, T. (2002). Pilot study report: The Liberty Tower of Meiji University. IEA-ECBCS Annex 35:

Natural and Hybrid Ventilation, 8th expert meeting, Montreal, Canada, 14-17 May.

Keppel Land. (2011). “Showcase: Ocean Financial Centre” in Sustainability Report 2011, Singapore, pp. 58-61.

Jahnkassim, P.S. (2004) “The bioclimatic skyscraper: a critical analysis of the theories and designs of Ken Yeang.” PhD thesis, University of Brighton.

Lehmann, S. & Ingenhoven, C. (2009). “The future is green: a conversation between two German architects in Sydney.” Journal of Green Building, 4(3), 44-51.

Nicol, F., Humphreys, M., & Roaf, S. (2012). Adaptive Thermal Comfort Principles and Practice. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.

Oldfield, P., Trabucco, D., and Wood, A. (2008). “Five energy generations of tall buildings: a historical analysis of energy consumption in high-rise buildings.” CTBUH 8th World Congress, Dubai. March 3-5.

Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., & McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(5), 1633-1644.

Raji, B., Tenpierik, M., and Dobbelsteen, van den A. (2014). “A Comparative Study of Design Strategies for Energy Efficiency in 6 High-Rise Buildings in Two Different Climates.” PLEA 2014 - The 30th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Ahmedabad, India, 16-18 December.

Welfonder, T. (2006). Design and evaluation of Bioclimatic Buildings. Transsolar Energietechnik GmbH, Barcelona, June 15th 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.pmhb.org/repdoc/59572-20060802145405.pdf

Wood, A., & Salib, R. (2013a). “30 St. Mary Axe” in Natural ventilation in high-rise office buildings. New York: Routledge, pp. 84-91.

Wood, A., & Salib, R. (2013b). “Torre Cube” in Natural ventilation in high-rise office buildings. New York: Routledge, pp. 98-103.

Wood, A., & Salib, R. (2013c). “Liberty Tower of Meiji University” in Natural ventilation in high-rise office buildings. New York: Routledge, pp. 42-49.

Yin, R.K. (2009). Case Study Research. Design and Methods, Sage, Thousand Oaks.

Yudelson, J., & Meyer, U. (2013). The world’s greenest buildings. New York: Routledge, pp. 212-214.

Nicol, F., Humphreys, M., & Roaf, S. (2012). Adaptive Thermal Comfort Principles and Practice. In. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.




Chapter 3

Abanda, F. H., & Byers, L. (2016). An investigation of the impact of building orientation on energy consumption in a domestic building using emerging BIM (Building Information Modelling). Energy, 97, 517-527. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.12.135

AlAnzi, A., Seo, D., & Krarti, M. (2009). Impact of building shape on thermal performance of office buildings in Kuwait. Energy Conversion and Management, 50(3), 822-828. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.m.2008.09.033

Athienitis, A., & Attia, S. (2010). Strategic Design, Optimization, and Modelling Issues of Net-Zero Energy Solar Buildings. Paper presented at the Proceedings of Eurosun 2010, Graz, Austria.

Attia, S., & De Herde, A. (2011, 13-15 July). Design decision tools for zero energy buildings. Paper presented at the 27th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Bragança, L., Vieira, S. M., & Andrade, J. B. (2014). Early Stage Design Decisions: The Way to Achieve Sustainable Buildings at Lower Costs. The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/365364

Choi, I. Y., Cho, S. H., & Kim, J. T. (2012). Energy consumption characteristics of high-rise apartment buildings according to building shape and mixed-use development. Energy and Buildings, 46, 123-131. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.10.038

Depecker, P., Menezo, C., Virgone, J., & Lepers, S. (2001). Design of buildings shape and energetic consumption. Building and Environment, 36(5), 627-635. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(00)00044-5

Dobbelsteen, A. v. d., Thijssen, S., Colaleo, V., & Metz, T. (2007). Ecology of the Building Geometry - Environmental Performance of Different Building Shapes. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the CIB World Building Congress 2007; CIB/CSIR, Cape Town, South Africa.

Florides, G. A., Tassou, S. A., Kalogirou, S. A., & Wrobel, L. C. (2002). Measures used to lower building energy consumption and their cost effectiveness. Applied Energy, 73(3–4), 299-328. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-2619(02)00119-8

Goia, F., Haase, M., & Perino, M. (2013). Optimizing the configuration of a façade module for office buildings by means of integrated thermal and lighting simulations in a total energy perspective. Applied Energy, 108, 515-527. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.02.063

Kämpf, J. H., & Robinson, D. (2010). Optimisation of building form for solar energy utilisation using constrained evolutionary algorithms. Energy and Buildings, 42(6), 807-814. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.11.019

Kheiri, F. (2013). The relation of orientation and dimensional specifications of window with building energy consumption in four different climates of Koppen classification. Researcher, 5(12), 107-115. doi:10.7537/marsrsj051213.15

Magnier, L., & Haghighat, F. (2010). Multiobjective optimization of building design using TRNSYS simulations, genetic algorithm, and Artificial Neural Network. Building and Environment, 45(3), 739-746. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.08.016

Malkawi, A. M. (2004). Developments in environmental performance simulation. Automation in Construction, 13(4), 437-445. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2004.03.002

Mingfang, T. (2002). Solar control for buildings. Building and Environment, 37(7), 659-664. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(01)00063-4

Ourghi, R., Al-Anzi, A., & Krarti, M. (2007). A simplified analysis method to predict the impact of shape on annual energy use for office buildings. Energy Conversion and Management, 48(1), 300-305. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2006.04.011

Pacheco, R., Ordóñez, J., & Martínez, G. (2012). Energy efficient design of building: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(6), 3559-3573. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.03.045

Pessenlehner, W., & Mahdavi, A. (2003). Building morphology, transparence, and energy performance. Paper presented at the Eighth International IBPSA Conference, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

Raji, B., Tenpierik, M. J., & Dobbelsteen, A. v. d. (2016). A comparative study: design strategies for energy-efficiency of high-rise office buildings. Journal of Green Building, 11(1), 134-158. doi:10.3992/jgb.11.1.134.1

Straube, J. F., & Burnett, E. F. P. (2005). Building Science for Building Enclosures. Pennsylvania State University: State College, PA, USA: Building Science Press.

Susorova, I., Tabibzadeh, M., Rahman, A., Clack, H. L., & Elnimeiri, M. (2013). The effect of geometry factors on fenestration energy performance and energy savings in office buildings. Energy and Buildings, 57, 6-13. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.10.035

US Department of Energy. Weather Data. (2016, September 20). Retrieved from Retrieved from: https://energyplus.net/weather

Wang, L., Mathew, P., & Pang, X. (2012). Uncertainties in energy consumption introduced by building operations and weather for a medium-size office building. Energy and Buildings, 53, 152-158. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.06.017

Wang, W., Rivard, H., & Zmeureanu, R. (2005). An object-oriented framework for simulation-based green building design optimization with genetic algorithms. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 19(1), 5-23. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2005.03.002

Watts, S. (2013). Tall Building Economics. In D. Parker & A. Wood (Eds.), The Tall Buildings Reference Book (pp.49-70). London ; New York Routledge.

Wilkinson, C. (2013). Aesthetics, Symbolism and Status in the Twenty-First Century. In D. Parker & A. Wood (Eds.), The Tall Buildings Reference Book (pp. 33-40). London ; New York: Routledge.

Wood, A., & Salib, R. (2013). Natural ventilation in high-rise office buildings, CTBUH technical guides. New York: Routledge.

Yi, Y. K., & Malkawi, A. M. (2009). Optimizing building form for energy performance based on hierarchical geometry relation. Automation in Construction, 18(6), 825-833. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2009.03.006

Yi, Y. K., & Malkawi, A. M. (2012). Site-specific optimal energy form generation based on hierarchical geometry relation. Automation in Construction, 26, 77-91. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2012.05.004




Chapter 4

Barbosa, S., & Ip, K. (2014). Perspectives of double skin façades for naturally ventilated buildings: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 40(0), 1019-1029. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/jrser.2014.07.192

Calleja Rodríguez, G., Carrillo Andrés, A., Domínguez Muñoz, F., Cejudo López, J. M., & Zhang, Y. (2013). Uncertainties and sensitivity analysis in building energy simulation using macroparameters. Energy and Buildings, 67(0), 79-87. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.08.009

Capeluto, I. G., & Ochoa, C. E. (2014). Simulation-based method to determine climatic energy strategies of an adaptable building retrofit façade system. Energy, 76(0), 375-384. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.08.028

Chan, A. L. S., Chow, T. T., Fong, K. F., & Lin, Z. (2009). Investigation on energy performance of double skin façade in Hong Kong. Energy and Buildings, 41(11), 1135-1142. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.05.012

Cheung, C. K., Fuller, R. J., & Luther, M. B. (2005). Energy-efficient envelope design for high-rise apartments. Energy and Buildings, 37(1), 37-48. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.05.002

Eskin, N., & Türkmen, H. (2008). Analysis of annual heating and cooling energy requirements for office buildings in different climates in Turkey. Energy and Buildings, 40(5), 763-773. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.05.008

European Commission. (2007). Energy Efficiency of Buildings. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/energy-efficiency/building

European Commission. (2014). Report on energy efficiency and its contribution toenergy security and the 2030framework for climate and energy policy. Retrieved from Brussels:

Gratia, E., & De Herde, A. (2007). The most efficient position of shading devices in a double-skin facade. Energy and Buildings, 39(3), 364-373. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2006.09.001

Heo, Y., Choudhary, R., & Augenbroe, G. A. (2012). Calibration of building energy models for retrofit analysis under uncertainty. Energy and Buildings, 47, 550-560. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.12.029

Ji, Y., Cook, M., Hanby, V., Infield, D., Loveday, D., & Mei, L. (2007). Cfd modelling of double-skin façades with venetian blinds. Paper presented at the IBPSA 2007 - International Building Performance Simulation Association 2007.

Konstantinou, T., & Knaack, U. (2013). An approach to integrate energy efficiency upgrade into refurbishment design process, applied in two case-study buildings in Northern European climate. Energy and Buildings, 59(0), 301-309. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.12.023

Lam, J. C., Wan, K. K. W., & Yang, L. (2008). Sensitivity analysis and energy conservation measures implications. Energy Conversion and Management, 49(11), 3170-3177. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2008.05.022

Maamari, F., Andersen, M., de Boer, J., Carroll, W. L., Dumortier, D., & Greenup, P. (2006). Experimental validation of simulation methods for bi-directional transmission properties at the daylighting performance level. Energy and Buildings, 38(7), 878-889. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2006.03.008

Méndez Echenagucia, T., Capozzoli, A., Cascone, Y., & Sassone, M. (2015). The early design stage of a building envelope: Multi-objective search through heating, cooling and lighting energy performance analysis. Applied Energy, 154, 577-591. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.04.090

Mirrahimi, S., Mohamed, M. F., Haw, L. C., Ibrahim, N. L. N., Yusoff, W. F. M., & Aflaki, A. (2016). The effect of building envelope on the thermal comfort and energy saving for high-rise buildings in hot–humid climate. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 53, 1508-1519. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.09.055

Ng, S. T., Gong, W., & Loveday, D. L. (2014). Sustainable Refurbishment Methods for Uplifting the Energy Performance of High-rise Residential Buildings in Hong Kong. Procedia Engineering, 85(0), 385-392. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.10.564

Ochoa, C. E., Aries, M. B. C., van Loenen, E. J., & Hensen, J. L. M. (2012). Considerations on design optimization criteria for windows providing low energy consumption and high visual comfort. Applied Energy, 95(0), 238-245. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.02.042

Pacheco Torgal, F., Mistretta, M., Kaklauskas, A., Granqvist, C. G., & Cabeza, L. F. (2013). Nearly Zero Energy Building Refurbishment: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London: Springer.

Radhi, H., Sharples, S., & Fikiry, F. (2013). Will multi-facade systems reduce cooling energy in fully glazed buildings? A scoping study of UAE buildings. Energy and Buildings, 56(0), 179-188. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.08.030

Rahmani, B., Kandar, M. Z., & Rahmani, P. (2012). How double skin façade’s air-gap sizes effect on lowering solar heat gain in tropical climate? World Applied Sciences Journal, 18(6), 774-778. doi:10.5829/idosi.wasj.2012.18.06.3184

Tavares, P. F. d. A. F., & Martins, A. M. d. O. G. (2007). Energy efficient building design using sensitivity analysis—A case study. Energy and Buildings, 39(1), 23-31. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2006.04.017

Tian, W. (2013). A review of sensitivity analysis methods in building energy analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 20(0), 411-419. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.12.014

Torres, M., Alavedra, P., Guzmán, A., Cuerva, E., Planas, C., Clemente, R., et al. (2007). Double Skin Facades Cavity and Exterior Openings Dimensions for SavingEnergy on Mediterranean Climate. Paper presented at the Building Simulation, Beijing, China.

Verbeeck, G., & Hens, H. (2005). Energy savings in retrofitted dwellings: economically viable? Energy and Buildings, 37(7), 747-754. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.10.003

Yıldız, Y., & Arsan, Z. D. (2011). Identification of the building parameters that influence heating and cooling energy loads for apartment buildings in hot-humid climates. Energy, 36(7), 4287-4296. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.04.013

Yoon, J., Lee, E. J., & Claridge, D. E. (2003). Calibration Procedure for Energy Performance Simulation of a Commercial Building. ASME. J. Sol. Energy Eng, 125(3), 251–257. doi:doi:10.1115/1.1564076

Yun, G., Yoon, K. C., & Kim, K. S. (2014). The influence of shading control strategies on the visual comfort and energy demand of office buildings. Energy and Buildings, 84(Supplement C), 70-85. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.07.040

Ismail, L. H. (2007). An evaluation of bioclimatic high-rise office buildings in a tropical climate: energy consumption and users’ satisfaction in selected office buildings in Malaysia. (PhD thesis), University of Liverpool,

Knight Frank. (2008). Real Estate Highlights - Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Johor Bahru (2000-1st half 2008). Retrieved from Retrieved from: http://www.propertyweek.com/Journals/Builder_Group/Property_Week/10_October_2008/attachments/Real%20Estate%20Highlights%201H2008.pdf

US Department of Energy. Weather Data. (2016, September 20). Retrieved from Retrieved from: https://energyplus.net/weather

Wilson, R. (2014). 10 key questions about exterior shading. Retrieved from Retrieved from: https://www.constructionspecifier.com/10-key-questions-about-exterior-shading/




Chapter 5

Acred, A., & Hunt, G. R. (2014). Stack ventilation in multi-storey atrium buildings: A dimensionless design approach. Building and Environment, 72, 44-52. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.10.007

ASHRAE. (2005). Capter 16: Airflow around buildings: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

Baharvand, M., Hamdan Bin Ahmad, M., Safikhani, T., & Binti Abdul Majid, R. (2013). DesignBuilder Verification and Validation for Indoor Natural Ventilation. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3(4), 182-189.

Bouwbesluit. (2011). Energieprestatie van gebouwen – Bepalingsmethode. In NEN 7120.

Cheung, J. O. P., & Liu, C.-H. (2011). CFD simulations of natural ventilation behaviour in high-rise buildings in regular and staggered arrangements at various spacings. Energy and Buildings, 43(5), 1149-1158. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.11.024

Chung, L. P., Ahmad, M. H. B. H., Ossen, D. R., & Hamid, M. H. (2014). Application of CFD in Prediction of Indoor Building Thermal Performance as an Effective Pre-Design Tool Towards Sustainability. World Applied Sciences Journal, 30, 269-279. doi:10.5829/idosi.wasj.2014.30.icmrp.35

Davenport, A. G., & Hui, H. Y. L. (1982). External and Internal Wind Pressures on Cladding of Buildings, Report of the Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory. Retrieved from University of Western Ontario: DesignBuilder. DesignBuilder EnergyPlus Simulation Documentation. v3.0. Retrieved from http://www.designbuilder.co.uk

Ding, W., Hasemi, Y., & Yamada, T. (2005). Natural ventilation performance of a double-skin façade with a solar chimney. Energy and Buildings, 37(4), 411-418. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.08.002

Dols, W. S., & Walton, G. (2002). NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 6921 (6921 ). Retrieved from: https://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.6921

EN15251. (2007). Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics. In. Brussels: CEN.

Etheridge, D. (2010). Ventilation, air quality and airtightness in buildings. In M. R. Hall (Ed.), Materials for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Comfort in Buildings (pp. 77-100): Woodhead Publishing.

Etheridge, D. (2012). Natural ventilation of buildings theory, measurement and design. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Flourentzou, F., Van der Maas, J., & Roulet, C. A. (1998). Natural ventilation for passive cooling: measurement of discharge coefficients. Energy and Buildings, 27(3), 283-292. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(97)00043-1

Gebreslassie, M. G., Tabor, G. R., & Belmont, M. R. (2012). CFD Simulations for Sensitivity Analysis of Different Parameters to the Wake Characteristics of Tidal Turbine. Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Vol.02No.03, 9. doi:10.4236/ojfd.2012.23006

Holford, J. M., & Hunt, G. R. (2003). Fundamental atrium design for natural ventilation. Building and Environment, 38(3), 409-426. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(02)00019-7

Khanal, R., & Lei, C. (2011). Solar chimney—A passive strategy for natural ventilation. Energy and Buildings, 43(8), 1811-1819. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.03.035

Khanal, R., & Lei, C. (2012). Flow reversal effects on buoyancy induced air flow in a solar chimney. Solar Energy, 86(9), 2783-2794. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2012.06.015

KNMI. Retrieved from http://www.knmi.nl/home

Liddament, M. W. (1986). Air Infiltration Calculation Techniques: An Applications Guide: Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre.

Liping, W., & Hien, W. N. (2007). The impacts of ventilation strategies and facade on indoor thermal environment for naturally ventilated residential buildings in Singapore. Building and Environment, 42(12), 4006-4015. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.06.027

Liu, P.-C., Lin, H.-T., & Chou, J.-H. (2009). Evaluation of buoyancy-driven ventilation in atrium buildings using computational fluid dynamics and reduced-scale air model. Building and Environment, 44(9), 1970-1979. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.01.013

Moosavi, L., Mahyuddin, N., Ab Ghafar, N., & Azzam Ismail, M. (2014). Thermal performance of atria: An overview of natural ventilation effective designs. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 34, 654-670. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.02.035

Nicol, F., Humphreys, M., & Roaf, S. (2012). Adaptive Thermal Comfort Principles and Practice. In. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.

Nielsen, P. V. (1998). The selection of turbulence models for prediction of room airflow. ASHRAE Transactions, 104(Part 1B), 1119-1127.

Northumbria University. (2011). An Inter-program Analysis of Computational Fluid Dynamics Based on PHOENICS and DesignBuilder Software. Retrieved from School of Built and Natural Environment: http://www.designbuilder.co.uk/version5/download/documents/31-designbuilder-cfd-validation-against-pheonics

Prajongsan, P., & Sharples, S. (2012). Enhancing natural ventilation, thermal comfort and energy savings in high-rise residential buildings in Bangkok through the use of ventilation shafts. Building and Environment, 50, 104-113. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.10.020

Priyadarsini, R., Cheong, K. W., & Wong, N. H. (2004). Enhancement of natural ventilation in high-rise residential buildings using stack system. Energy and Buildings, 36(1), 61-71. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(03)00076-8

Raji, B., Tenpierik, M., & van den Dobbelsteen, A. (2017). Early-Stage Design Considerations for the Energy-Efficiency of High-Rise Office Buildings. Sustainability, 9(4), 623.

Ramponi, R., & Blocken, B. (2012). CFD simulation of cross-ventilation for a generic isolated building: Impact of computational parameters. Building and Environment, 53, 34-48. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.01.004

Rossi, A., & Wolf, M. (2016). Update on U.S. Fan Energy-Efficiency Regulation. Retrieved from http://www.hpac.com/iaq-ventilation/update-us-fan-energy-efficiency-regulation

Shafiei Fini, A., & Moosavi, A. (2016). Effects of “wall angularity of atrium” on “buildings natural ventilation and thermal performance” and CFD model. Energy and Buildings, 121, 265-283. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.12.054

Stec, W. J. (2006). Symbiosis of double skin facade and indoor climate installation. (Doctoral thesis), TU Delft, Printed in the Netherlands.

Wood, A., & Salib, R. (2013). Natural ventilation in high-rise office buildings. New York: Routledge.

SHRAE. (2004). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004. Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality. In. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

Auliciems, A., & Szokolay, S. V. (2007). PLEA Notes, note 3: Passive and Low Energy Architecture - Design Tools and Techniques - Thermal comfort. Retrieved from PLEA in association with Department of Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Etheridge, D., & Ford, B. (2008). Natural Ventilation of Tall Buildings – Options and Limitations. Paper presented at the CTBUH 2008 8th World Congress, Dubai.

European Standard EN15251. (2007). Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics. In. Brussels: CEN.

Szokolay, S. V. (1997). Thermal comfort in the warm-humid tropics. Paper presented at the Principles and Practice, The 31st International ANZAScA Conference, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

US Department of Energy. Weather Data. (2016, September 20). Retrieved from Retrieved from: https://energyplus.net/weather

Wood, A., & Salib, R. (2013). Natural ventilation in high-rise office buildings, CTBUH technical guides. New York: Routledge.




Chapter 6

Alcazar, S., & Bass, B. (2005). Energy performance of green roofs in a multi-storey residential building in Madrid, in: Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities, Washington, D.C.

Alexandri, E., & Jones, P. (2008). Temperature decreases in an urban canyon due to green walls and green roofs in diverse climates. Building and Environment, 43(4), 480-493.

Castleton, H. F., Stovin, V., Beck, S. B. M., & Davison, J. B. (2010). Green roofs; building energy savings and the potential for retrofit. Energy and Buildings, 42(10), 1582-1591.

Chan, A. L. S., & Chow, T. T. (2013a). Energy and economic performance of green roof system under future climatic conditions in Hong Kong. Energy and Buildings, 64(0), 182-198.

Chan, A. L. S., & Chow, T. T. (2013b). Evaluation of Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) for commercial buildings constructed with green roof. Applied Energy, 107(0), 10-24.

Cheng, C. Y., Cheung, K. K. S., & Chu, L. M. (2010). Thermal performance of a vegetated cladding system on facade walls. Building and Environment, 45(8), 1779-1787.

Darlington, A., Chan, M., Malloch, D., Pilger, C., & Dixon, M. A. (2000a). The Biofiltration of Indoor Air: Implications for Air Quality. Indoor Air, 10(1), 39-46.

Darlington, A. B., Dat, J. F., & Dixon, M. A. (2000b). The Biofiltration of Indoor Air: Air Flux and Temperature Influences the Removal of Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene. Environmental Science & Technology, 35(1), 240-246.

Darlington, A. B., Dixon, M. A., & Arnold, K. A. (1996). The dynamics of ppCO2 and its fixation pattern in a partially closed biological system, SAE Technical Paper Series.

Darlington A. B., Dixon, M. A., & Pilger, C. (1998). The use of bio-filters to improve indoor air quality: the removal of toluene, TCE and formaldehyde, Life Support and Biosphere Science, 5, 63–69.

Eumorfopoulou, E., & Aravantinos, D. (1998). The contribution of a planted roof to the thermal protection of buildings in Greece. Energy and Buildings, 27(1), 29-36.

Eumorfopoulou, E. A., & Kontoleon, K. J. (2009). Experimental approach to the contribution of plant-covered walls to the thermal behaviour of building envelopes. Building and Environment, 44(5), 1024-1038.

Fioretti, R., Palla, A., Lanza, L. G., & Principi, P. (2010). Green roof energy and water related performance in the Mediterranean climate. Building and Environment, 45(8), 1890-1904.

Getter, K. L., Rowe, D. B., Andresen, J. A., & Wichman, I. S. (2011). Seasonal heat flux properties of an extensive green roof in a Midwestern U.S. climate. Energy and Buildings, 43(12), 3548-3557.

Hoyano, A. (1988). Climatological uses of plants for solar control and the effects on the thermal environment of a building. Energy and Buildings, 11(1–3), 181-199.

Köhler, M. (2008). Green facades- a view back and some visions. Urban Ecosystems, 11: 423-436.

Kokogiannakis, G., Tietje, A., & Darkwa, J. (2011). The role of Green Roofs on Reducing Heating and Cooling Loads: A Database across Chinese Climates. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 11, Part B(0), 604-610.

Koyama, T., Yoshinaga, M., Hayashi, H., Maeda, K.-i., & Yamauchi, A. (2013). Identification of key plant traits contributing to the cooling effects of green façades using freestanding walls. Building and Environment, 66(0), 96-103.Llewellyn, D., Darlington, A., Dixon, M., & Mallany, J. (2001). The Bio-filtration of Indoor Air I: A Novel Reactor for a Novel Waste Gas Stream. Air Quality Solutions Ltd.

Lohr, V. I., & Pearson-mims, C. H. (1996). Particulate matter accumulation on horizontal surfaces in interiors: Influence of foliage plants. Atmospheric Environment, 30(14), 2565-2568.

Nelson, M., & Wolverton, B. C. (2011). Plants+soil/wetland microbes: Food crop systems that also clean air and water. Advances in Space Research, 47(4), 582-590.

Onmura, S., Matsumoto, M., & Hokoi, S. (2001). Study on evaporative cooling effect of roof lawn gardens. Energy and Buildings, 33(7), 653-666.

Ouldboukhitine, S.-E., Belarbi, R., Jaffal, I., & Trabelsi, A. (2011). Assessment of green roof thermal behavior: A coupled heat and mass transfer model. Building and Environment, 46(12), 2624-2631.

Sailor, D. J. (2008). A green roof model for building energy simulation programs. Energy and Buildings, 40(8), 1466-1478.

Simochi, S.L., & Hites, R.A. (1995). Organic pollutant accumulation in vegetation, Environmental Science and Technology, 29: 2905–2914.

Spala, A., Bagiorgas, H. S., Assimakopoulos, M. N., Kalavrouziotis, J., Matthopoulos, D., & Mihalakakou, G. (2008). On the green roof system. Selection, state of the art and energy potential investigation of a system installed in an office building in Athens, Greece. Renewable Energy, 33(1), 173-177.

Tabares-Velasco, P. C., & Srebric, J. (2012). A heat transfer model for assessment of plant based roofing systems in summer conditions. Building and Environment, 49(0), 310-323.

Takakura, T., Kitade, S., & Goto, E. (2000). Cooling effect of greenery cover over a building. Energy and Buildings, 31(1), 1-6.

Treesubsuntorn, C., & Thiravetyan, P. (2012). Removal of benzene from indoor air by Dracaena sanderiana: Effect of wax and stomata. Atmospheric Environment, 57(0), 317-321.

Tuomainen M, Smolander J, Kurnitski J, Palonen J, & O, S. (2002). Modelling the cost effects of the indoorenvironment. Paper presented at the Proceedings of indoor air, Monterey, California.

Wong, N. H., Kwang Tan, A. Y., Chen, Y., Sekar, K., Tan, P. Y., Chan, D., . Wong, N. C. (2010). Thermal evaluation of vertical greenery systems for building walls. Building and Environment, 45(3), 663-672.

[1] United Nations. World urbanization prospect: the 2011 revision, New York. 2012; p. 4.

[2] Wood A. Trends and challenges in high-rise buildings in the 21st century, the international high-rise award 2012, council on tall buildings and urban habitat, Chicago. 2010.

[3] van den Dobbelsteen A. (2012). “High-rise buildings: a contribution to sustainable construction in the city” in H, Meyer & D, Zandbelt (eds), High-rise and the Sustainable City. Amsterdam:Techne Press, pp. 120-47.

[4] Yeang K, Powell R. Designing the ecoskyscraper: premises for tall building design. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings. 2007;16:411-27.

[5] Akbari H, Matthews HD. Global cooling updates: Reflective roofs and pavements. Energy and Buildings. 2012;55:2-6.

[6] Zhang X, Shen L, Tam VWY, Lee WWY. Barriers to implement extensive green roof systems: A Hong Kong study. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2012;16:314-9.

[7] Snodgrass EC, Snodgrass LL. Green Roof Plants: A Resource and Planting Guide. London:Timber Press, 2006.

[8] IGRA. (2012). Green roof types. In International Green Roof Association. Retrieved February 7, 2013, from http://www.igra-world.com/types_of_green_roofs/index.php.

[9] FLL. German Landscape Research, Development and Construction Society. Guidelines for the Planning, Construction and Maintenance of Green Roofing: green roofing guideline, 2008 edition.

[10] Feng C, Meng Q, Zhang Y. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the energy balance of extensive green roofs. Energy and Buildings. 2010;42:959-65.

[11] Lazzarin RM, Castellotti F, Busato F. Experimental measurements and numerical modelling of a green roof. Energy and Buildings. 2005;37:1260-7.

[12] Theodosiou TG. Summer period analysis of the performance of a planted roof as a passive cooling technique. Energy and Buildings. 2003;35:909-17.

[13] Tsang SW, Jim CY. Theoretical evaluation of thermal and energy performance of tropical green roofs. Energy. 2011;36:3590-8.

[14] Wong NH, Chen Y, Ong CL, Sia A. Investigation of thermal benefits of rooftop garden in the tropical environment. Building and Environment. 2003;38:261-70.

[15] Morau D, Libelle T, Garde F. Performance Evaluation of Green Roof for Thermal Protection of Buildings In Reunion Island. Energy Procedia. 2012;14:1008-16.

[16] Barrio EPD. Analysis of the green roofs cooling potential in buildings. Energy and Buildings. 1998;27:179-93.

[17] Schumann, L. 2007. Ecologically inspired design of green roof retrofit. M.S. Thesis, Biological Resources Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park. .

[18] Sailor D, Timothy B. Elley and Max Gibson. Exploring the building energy impacts of green roof design decisions - a modeling study of buildings in four distinct climates. Building Physics. 2011.

[19] Jaffal I, Ouldboukhitine S-E, Belarbi R. A comprehensive study of the impact of green roofs on building energy performance. Renewable Energy. 2012;43:157-64.

[20] Wong NH, Cheong DKW, Yan H, Soh J, Ong CL, Sia A. The effects of rooftop garden on energy consumption of a commercial building in Singapore. Energy and Buildings. 2003;35:353-64.

[21] Kumar R, Kaushik SC. Performance evaluation of green roof and shading for thermal protection of buildings. Building and Environment. 2005;40:1505-11.

[22] Fang C-F. Evaluating the thermal reduction effect of plant layers on rooftops. Energy and Buildings. 2008;40:1048-52.

[23] Permpituck S, Namprakai P. The energy consumption performance of roof lawn gardens in Thailand. Renewable Energy. 2012;40:98-103.

[24] Zinzi M, Agnoli S. Cool and green roofs. An energy and comfort comparison between passive cooling and mitigation urban heat island techniques for residential buildings in the Mediterranean region. Energy and Buildings. 2011;55:66-76.

[25] Lui K, Minor J. Performance evaluation of an extensive green roof. Proceeding of the Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities, Washington, D.C. 5-6 May 2005. Unpublished conference paper, 2005.

[26] Lin Y-J, Lin H-T. Thermal performance of different planting substrates and irrigation frequencies in extensive tropical rooftop greeneries. Building and Environment. 2011;46:345-55.

[27] Ascione F, Bianco N, de’ Rossi F, Turni G, Vanoli GP. Green roofs in European climates. Are effective solutions for the energy savings in air-conditioning? Applied Energy. 2013;104:845-59.

[28] Santamouris M, Pavlou C, Doukas P, Mihalakakou G, Synnefa A, Hatzibiros A, et al. Investigating and analysing the energy and environmental performance of an experimental green roof system installed in a nursery school building in Athens, Greece. Energy. 2007;32:1781-8.

[29] Niachou A, Papakonstantinou K, Santamouris M, Tsangrassoulis A, Mihalakakou G. Analysis of the green roof thermal properties and investigation of its energy performance. Energy and Buildings. 2001;33:719-29.

[30] Pérez G, Rincón L, Vila A, González JM, Cabeza LF. Green vertical systems for buildings as passive systems for energy savings. Applied Energy. 2011;88:4854-9.

[31] Dunnett N, Kingsbury N. Planting Green Roofs and Living Walls. London: Timber Press; 2008.

[32] Perini K, Rosasco P. Cost–benefit analysis for green façades and living wall systems. Building and Environment. 2013;70:110-21.

[33] Ottelé M, Perini K, Fraaij ALA, Haas EM, Raiteri R. Comparative life cycle analysis for green façades and living wall systems. Energy and Buildings. 2011;43:3419-29.

[34] Perini K, Ottelé M, Fraaij ALA, Haas EM, Raiteri R. Vertical greening systems and the effect on air flow and temperature on the building envelope. Building and Environment. 2011;46:2287-94.

[35] Wong NH, Kwang Tan AY, Tan PY, Chiang K, Wong NC. Acoustics evaluation of vertical greenery systems for building walls. Building and Environment. 2010;45:411-20.

[36] Sunakorn P, Yimprayoon C. Thermal Performance of Biofacade with Natural Ventilation in the Tropical Climate. Procedia Engineering. 2011;21:34-41.

[37] Chen Q, Li B, Liu X. An experimental evaluation of the living wall system in hot and humid climate. Energy and Buildings. 2013;61:298-307.

[38] Franco A, Fernández-Cañero R, Pérez-Urrestarazu L, Valera DL. Wind tunnel analysis of artificial substrates used in active living walls for indoor environment conditioning in Mediterranean buildings. Building and Environment. 2012;51:370-8.

[39] Wolverton BC, Wolverton JD. Plants and soil microorganisms: removal of formaldehyde, xylene and ammonia from the indoor environment. J. Mississippi Acad. Sci. 1993;38:11-15.

[40] Fernández-Cañero R, Urrestarazu LP, Franco Salas A. Assessment of the Cooling Potential of an Indoor Living Wall using Different Substrates in a Warm Climate. Indoor and Built Environment.

[41] Tilley D, Price J, Matt S, Marrow B. Vegetated walls: thermal and growth properties of structured green facades. Final Report to Green Roofs for Healthy Cities-Green Walls Group, 2012.

[42] Ip K, Lam M, Miller A. Shading performance of a vertical deciduous climbing plant canopy. Building and Environment. 2010;45:81-8.

[43] BCA. (2004). Guidelines on envelope thermal transfer value for buildings. Issued by Commissioner of Building Control, Ver 1.01. Retrieved August 10, 2014, from http://www.bca.gov.sg/PerformanceBased/others/ETTV.pdf.

[44] Wong NH, Tan AYK, Tan PY, Wong NC. Energy simulation of vertical greenery systems. Energy and Buildings. 2009;41:1401-8.

[45] Nori C, Olivieri F, Grifoni RC, Bedoya C. Testing the performance of a green wall system on an experimental building in the summer. PLEA2013 - 29th Conference, Sustainable Architecture for a Renewable Future, Munich, Germany. 2013.

[46] Mazzali U, Peron F, Romagnoni P, Pulselli RM, Bastianoni S. Experimental investigation on the energy performance of Living Walls in a temperate climate. Building and Environment. 2013;64:57-66.

[47] Pérez G, Rincón L, Vila A, González JM, Cabeza LF. Behaviour of green facades in Mediterranean Continental climate. Energy Conversion and Management. 2011;52:1861-7.

[48] Kontoleon KJ, Eumorfopoulou EA. The effect of the orientation and proportion of a plant-covered wall layer on the thermal performance of a building zone. Building and Environment. 2010;45:1287-303.

[49] McPherson EG, Herrington LP, Heisler GM. Impacts of vegetation on residential heating and cooling. Energy and Buildings. 1988;12:41-51.

[50] Stec WJ, van Paassen AHC, Maziarz A. Modelling the double skin façade with plants. Energy and Buildings. 2005;37:419-27.

[51] Haber GM. The impact of tall buildings on users and neighbors. In: Conway D, editor. Human response to tall building. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson, & Ross, Inc. 1977:45–57.

[52] Powers D. (n.d). About balconies. In eHow. Retrieved February 10, 2013, from http://www.ehow.com/about_4709844_balconies.html.

[53] Ge H, McClung VR, Zhang S. Impact of balcony thermal bridges on the overall thermal performance of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings: A case study. Energy and Buildings. 2013.

[54] Papadakis G, Tsamis P, Kyritsis S. An experimental investigation of the effect of shading with plants for solar control of buildings. Energy and Buildings. 2001;33:831-6.

[55] Berry R, Livesley SJ, Aye L. Tree canopy shade impacts on solar irradiance received by building walls and their surface temperature. Building and Environment. 2013;69:91-100.

[56] Huang YJ, Akbari H, Taha H, Rosenfeld AH. The Potential of Vegetation in Reducing Summer Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology. 1987;26:1103-16.

[57] Nikoofard S, Ugursal VI, Beausoleil-Morrison I. Effect of external shading on household energy requirement for heating and cooling in Canada. Energy and Buildings. 2011;43:1627-35.

[58] Akbari H, Kurn DM, Bretz SE, Hanford JW. Peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees. Energy and Buildings. 1997;25:139-48.

[59] Simpson JR, McPherson EG. Potential of tree shade for reducing residential energy use in California. Journal of Arboriculture. 1996;22:10–18.

[60] Pandit R, Laband DN. Energy savings from tree shade. Ecological Economics. 2010;69:1324-9.

[61] Laband DN, Sophocleus JP. An Experimental Analysis of the Impact of Tree Shade on Electricity Consumption. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 2009;35(4):197–202.

[62] Osmundson T. Roof Gardens: History, Design and Construction. New York: Norton; 1999.

[63] Ong BL. Green plot ratio: an ecological measure for architecture and urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2003;63:197-211.

[64] Tian Y, Jim CY. Factors influencing the spatial pattern of sky gardens in the compact city of Hong Kong. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2011;101:299-309.

[65] Hodgson MJ, Oleson B, Fountain M. Environmental acceptability in an environmental field study. in: Healthy Buildings/IAQ. 1997;1:195-200.

[66] Guieysse B, Hort C, Platel V, Munoz R, Ondarts M, Revah S. Biological treatment of indoor air for VOC removal: Potential and challenges. Biotechnology Advances. 2008;26:398-410.

[67] Wood RA. Improving the indoor environment for health, well-being and productivity. In: Greening cities: A new urban ecology. Australian Technology Park, Sydney, Australia. 2003.

[68] Papinchak HL, Holcomb EJ, Best TO, Decoteau DR. Effectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone. HortTechnology. 2009;19:286-90.

[69] US EPA. (2012). An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). In United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved February 10, 2013, from http://www.epa.gov/iaq/ia-intro.html.

[70] ASHRAE Standard. (2010). Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality. ANSI/ASHRAE Addendum q to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007. Retrieved August 11, 2014, from http://www.ashrae.org.

[71] Wolverton, B.C. 1984. The role of plants and microorganisms in assuring a future supply of clean air and water. Natl. Aeronautics Space Admin., Natl. Space Technol. Lab., Stennis Space Center, MS.

[72] Godish T, Guindon C. An assessment of botanical air purification as a formaldehyde mitigation measure under dynamic laboratory chamber conditions. Environmental Pollution. 1989;62:13-20.

[73] Fjeld T, Bonnevie C. The effect of plants and artificial day-light on the well-being and health of office workers, school children and health care personnel. Seminar report: Reducing health complaints at work Plants for people, Int. Hort. Exhib. Floriade. 2002.

[74] Knowles L, MacLean P, Rosato M, Stanley C, Volpe S, Yousif D. Living wall: a feasibility study for the SLC. Final Report, ERS 250, University of Waterloo; 2002.

[75] Tarran J, Torpy F, Burchett M. Use of living pot-plants to cleanse indoor air - Research review. 6th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality. 2007:249-56.

[76] Pennisi SV, van Iersel MW. Quantification of Carbon Assimilation of Plants in Simulated and In Situ Interiorscapes. HortScience. 2012;47:468-76.

[77] Fjeld T, Veiersted B, Sandvik L, Riise G, Levy F. The effect of indoor foliage plants on health and discomfort symptoms among office workers. Indoor and Built Environment. 1998;7:204-09.

[78] Taib N, Abdullah A. Study of Landscape Gardens: Expectations and Users’ Perceptions of a High-Rise Office Building. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2012;50:633-42.

[79] Alexander C, Ishikawa S, Silverstein M. A pattern language. New York: Oxford University Press; 1977.

[80] Lohr VI. The contribution of interior plants to relative humidity in an office, p. 117-119. In: Diane Relf (ed.). The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-being and Social Development. Portland: Timber Press; 1992.




Chapter 7

Gilchrist, R., Frechette, R., & Parker, D. (2013). Towards Energy Independence. In D. Parker & A. Wood (Eds.), The Tall Buildings Reference Book (pp. 157-166). New York Routledge

Gonçalves, J. C. S. (2010). The Environmental Performance of Tall Buildings. London, UK: Earthscan.

Gratia, E., & De Herde, A. (2007). The most efficient position of shading devices in a double-skin facade. Energy and Buildings, 39(3), 364-373. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2006.09.001

Nicol, F., Humphreys, M., & Roaf, S. (2012). Adaptive Thermal Comfort Principles and Practice. In. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.

Oesterle, E. (2001). Double-skin facades : integrated planning : building physics, construction, aerophysics, air-conditioning, economic viability. Munich: Prestel.

Ottelé, M. (2015). A Green Building Envelope: A Crucial Contribution to Biophilic Cities. In F. Pacheco Torgal, J. A. Labrincha, M. V. Diamanti, C. P. Yu, & H. K. Lee (Eds.), Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering (pp. 135-161). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Raji, B., Tenpierik, M., & van den Dobbelsteen, A. (2017). Early-Stage Design Considerations for the Energy-Efficiency of High-Rise Office Buildings. Sustainability, 9(4), 623.

Sobek, W., Winterstetter, T., & Weller, C. P. (2013). Towards a Double-Skin Solution. In A. Wood & D. Parker (Eds.), The tall buildings reference book (pp. 279-291). New York, NY: Routledge.

van Hooff, T., Blocken, B., Aanen, L., & Bronsema, B. (2011). A venturi-shaped roof for wind-induced natural ventilation of buildings: Wind tunnel and CFD evaluation of different design configurations. Building and Environment, 46(9), 1797-1807. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.02.009

Wood, A., & Salib, R. (2013). Natural ventilation in high-rise office buildings, CTBUH technical guides. New York: Routledge.

Yun, G., Yoon, K. C., & Kim, K. S. (2014). The influence of shading control strategies on the visual comfort and energy demand of office buildings. Energy and Buildings, 84(Supplement C), 70-85. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.07.040
How to Cite
RAJI, Babak. Sustainable High-rises. A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment, [S.l.], n. 19, p. 1-386, sep. 2018. ISSN 2214-7233. Available at: <https://journals.library.tudelft.nl/index.php/abe/article/view/2528>. Date accessed: 18 feb. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.7480/abe.2018.19.
Published
2018-09-06