Energy performance progress of the Dutch non-profit housing stock: a longitudinal assessment

  • Faidra Filippidou TU Delft, Architecture and the Built Environment

Abstract

Worldwide, buildings consume a large part of the total energy delivered. In the context of all the end-use sectors, buildings represent the largest sector with 39% of the total final energy consumption, followed by transport in the EU (European Union ). A considerable percentage of this energy consumption is attributed to the residential sector. The building sector plays a major role in order to meet the energy saving targets set in the EU and in the Netherlands. This is particularly true for existing buildings, because they will constitute the major part of the housing stock over several decades. The renovation activity is expected to be greater than the construction and demolition activity in the future.

Policy targets and regulations are in force at the EU level to ensure the energy efficiency improvement of the building stock. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive ([EPBD] 2002, recast 2010) is the main legislative and policy tool in EU and focuses on both new and existing buildings. At the same time, the building sector plays a prominent role in the Energy Efficiency Directive ([EED] 2012). Relatedly, in the Netherlands, the foundation of energy efficiency policy has been a number of national cross-cutting measures and EU derived policies that play a large role; like the strengthening of standards for new buildings or dwellings and energy labels for existing ones.

The focus of this research is the existing dwelling stock and its energy performance progress. Throughout Europe, national approaches to building stock monitoring have evolved separately. Nevertheless, monitoring the building stocks’ energy performance is gaining attention. Information about the progress of energy performance improvements is not only needed to track the progress of policy implementation, but also better information and data are necessary to help the development of roadmaps towards a more energy efficient building stock.

This research seeks to provide insight into the energy performance progress, of the existing non-profit housing stock in the Netherlands, through the application of energy renovations. The non-profit housing stock comprises 30% of the housing market in the Netherlands and a large part of the policies towards a more efficient housing stock rely on the non-profit housing sector. To that end, we determine the energy renovation rate of the stock and the impact of the applied renovations on both the predicted and actual energy consumption. The difference of predicted and actual energy savings is analysed through longitudinal statistical modelling in renovated and non-renovated dwellings. Based on the knowledge gained on the renovation rates of the non-profit housing stock we compare and evaluate future renovation rates through dynamic building stock modelling and empirical data validation. In essence, we examine the effect that the improvement of thermo-physical characteristics of dwellings has on efforts to make the existing housing stock almost emission-neutral by 2050, as advocated by the European Commission since 2011.

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Tigchelaar C. (2014). Nulmeting subsidieregeling voor verhuurders. (In Dutch). Retrieved from: http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten-en-publicaties/rapporten/2014/06/24/nulmeting-subsidieregeling-voor-verhuurders.html

Tigchelaar, C., & Leidelmeijer, K. (2013). Energiebesparing: Een samenspel van woning en bewoner-Analyse van de module Energie WoON 2012. (In Dutch)

Ürge-Vorsatz, D. Koeppel, S. & Mirasgedis, S. (2007). “Appraisal of policy instruments for reducing buildings’ CO2 emissions.” Building Research & Information 35(4), 458-477.

Utley, J. I., & Shorrock, L.D. (2008). Domestic energy fact file 2008. Department of Energy and Climate Change, BRE, Watford.

Van den Wijngaart, R., Folkert, R. and van Middelkoop, M. (2014).Op weg naar een klimaatneutrale woningvoorraad in 2050, Den Haag: PBL. (In Dutch)

Van Eck, H. (2015). Implementation of the EPBD in the Netherlands – Status in November 2015. Netherlands Country Report 2015. Retrieved from: www.buildup.eu

Visscher, H., Majcen, D. & Itard, L. (2012). Effectiveness of energy performance certification for the existing housing stock. In RICS COBRA 2012, Proceedings of the Construction, Building and Real Estate Conference, Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University (pp. 130-148).

VROM-Inspectie (2009). Rapportage Gebruik en betrouwbaarheid energielabels bij woningen, VROM-Inspectie, May 2009. (In Dutch).

VROM-Inspectie (2010). Betrouwbaarheid van energielabels bij woningen, VROM-Inspectie, June 2010. (In Dutch).

VROM-Inspectie (2011). Derde onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van energielabels bij woningen, VROM-Inspectie, August 2011. (In Dutch).

Wittchen, B.K. & Kragh, J. (2012). Danish building typologies: Participation in the TABULA project. Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Copenhagen.

Yücel, G. (2013). Extent of inertia caused by the existing building stock against an energy transition in the Netherlands. Energy and Buildings, 56, 134-145.



Chapter 4

Aedes (2013). Dutch social housing in a nutshell. http://www.aedes.nl/binaries/downloads/vereniging/about-aedes/20130807-dutch-social-housing-in-a-nutshell.pdf .

Aedes (2014). Rapportage energiebesparingsmonitor SHAERE 2013. http://www.aedes.nl/binaries/downloads/energie-en-duurzaamheid/rapportage-shaere-2013.pdf .

ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition). (2009). American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. http://app.knovel.com/hotlink/toc/id:kpASHRAE22/ashrae-handbook-fundamentals/ashrae-handbook-fundamentals

Beuken, R. (2012). Implementing the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) - Netherlands Country Report 2012. www.epbd-ca.eu.

Braga, M. and Palvarini, P. (2013). Economic and Scientific Policy. Social Housing in the EU. Directorate-General for internal policies. Policy Department A. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/studies.

CECODHAS Housing Europe (2012). Housing Europe review. The nuts and bolts of European social housing system. http://www.housingeurope.eu/resource-105/the-housing-europe-review-2012.

Filippidou, F., Nieboer, N.E.T and Visscher, H.J. (2014). The pace of energy improvement in the Dutch non-profit housing. In Proceedings of the World Sustainable Buildings 2014 Conference. s.l.: CIB. International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (pp. 25-31).

Guerra-Santin, O., and Itard, L. (2012). The effect of energy performance regulations on energy consumption. Energy Efficiency, 5(3), 269-282.

ISSO (2009). ISSO 82.3 Formula Structure Publicatie 82.3 Handleiding EPA-W (Formulestructuur). (In Dutch).

ISSO (2011). ISSO 82.1 Handleiding Energieprestatie Advies Woningen. (In Dutch).

ISSO (2014). Whitepaper voor professionele verhuurders – December 2014. (In Dutch).

Itard, L. and Meijer, F. (2009). Towards a sustainable Northern European housing stock – Figures. facts and future. Sustainable Urban Areas 22. IOS Press.

Kemeny, J. (2002). From public housing to the social market. Routledge.

Laurent, M. H., Allibe, B., Oreszczyn, T., Hamilton, I., Galvin, R. and Tigchelaar, C. (2013). Back to reality: How domestic energy efficiency policies in four European countries can be improved by using empirical data instead of normative calculation. In eceee 2013 Summer Study proceedings (pp. 2057-2070).

Majcen, D., Itard, L.C.M. and Visscher, H. (2013). Theoretical vs. actual energy consumption of labelled dwellings in the Netherlands: Discrepancies and policy implications. Energy policy, 54, 125-136.

Majcen, D., Itard. L. and Filippidou, F. (2014). Analysis of label changes in the social housing sector between 2008 and 2013. OTB-Research for the Built Environment, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology.

Mata, É., Sasic, A. and Johnsson, F. (2010b). Retrofitting measures for energy savings in the Swedish residential building stock—assessing methodology. In: Proceedings of the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings XI International Conference. Florida. USA. December 5–9.

Meijer. F., Itard. L.. and Sunikka-Blank, M. (2009). Comparing European residential building stocks: performance. renovation and policy opportunities. Building Research & Information 37(5-6), 533-551.

Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties (BZK) (2014). Regeling van de Minister voor Wonen en Rijksdienst van 16 juni 2014. nr. 2014-0000293800. houdende vaststelling van regels voor het verstrekken van subsidie in verband met het stimuleren van de verduurzaming van de bestaande woningvoorraad in de sociale huursector (Stimuleringsregeling energieprestatie huursector). (In Dutch). https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/stcrt-2014-17264.

Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties (BZK) (2013). Cijfers over Wonen en Bouwen 2013. (In Dutch). http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/woningmarkt/documenten-en-publicaties/rapporten/2013/04/11/cijfers-over-wonen-en-bouwen-2013.html.

Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties (BZK), Aedes, Woonbond, Vastgoed Belang (2012). Convenant energiebesparing huursector. (In Dutch). http://www.rvo.nl/onderwerpen/duurzaam-ondernemen/gebouwen/woningbouw/beleidskader/convenant-energiebesparing-corporatiesector.

NPNZEB_NL (2013). “National plan for increasing the number of nearly zero-energy buildings. Draft version”. http://ec.europa.eu/energy/efficiency/buildings/doc/ms_nzeb_national_plans.zip.

Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (2010). Voorbeeldwoningen 2011 Bestaande bouw. (In Dutch) http://www.rvo.nl/sites/default/files/bijlagen/4.%20Brochure%20Voorbeeldwoningen%202011%20bestaande%20bouw.pdf .

SER (2013). Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei. (In Dutch). http://www.energieakkoordser.nl/~/media/files/internet/publicaties/overige/2010_2019/2013/energieakkoord-duurzame-groei/energieakkoord-duurzame-groei.ashx.

Statistics Netherlands (CBS) (2012). Environmental protection expenditures of households home improvement. http://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/696191E9-092A-4C83-A637-8D3FBC8D1FB9/0/2012finalreportepeofhouseholdshomeimprovement.pdf.

Statistics Netherlands (CBS) (2015). Historische reeksen; Nederlands van 1800 tot nu. (In Dutch). www.cbs.nl accessed September 2015

The European Parliament and the Council (2010). DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings (recast). http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32010L0031&from=EN.

Tigchelaar, C. and Leidelmeijer, K. (2013). Energiebesparing: Een samenspel van woning en bewoner-Analyse van de module Energie WoON 2012. (In Dutch).

Tigchelaar C. (2014). Nulmeting subsidieregeling voor verhuurders. (In Dutch). http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten-en-publicaties/rapporten/2014/06/24/nulmeting-subsidieregeling-voor-verhuurders.html

TNO report for the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM), 2009, Bouwprognoses 2009-2014

ürge-Vorsatz, D., Koeppel, S. and Mirasgedis, S. (2007). Appraisal of policy instruments for reducing buildings’ CO2 emissions. Building Research & Information 35.4: 458-477.

Visscher, H., Majcen, D. and Itard, L. (2012). Effectiveness of energy performance certification for the existing housing stock. In RICS COBRA 2012. Proceedings of the Construction. Building and Real Estate Conference. Tempe: Arizona State University (pp. 130-148).



Chapter 5

Aedes (2016). https://www.aedes.nl/artikelen/bedrijfsvoering/benchmarking/03-informatie-voorcorporaties/aedes-benchmark-2017-nieuwe-planning-voor-duurzaamheid-en-huurdersoordeel.html (accessed 14 December 2016).

Balaras, C. A., Dascalaki, E. G., Droutsa, K. G., & Kontoyiannidis, S. (2016). Empirical assessment of calculated and actual heating energy use in Hellenic residential buildings. [Article]. Applied Energy, 164, 115-132, doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.11.027.

Ballarini, I., Corgnati, S. P., & Corrado, V. (2014). Use of reference buildings to assess the energy saving potentials of the residential building stock: The experience of TABULA project. Energy Policy, 68, 273-284, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2014.01.027.

Boermans T., Dinges K., Grözinger J., Schäfer M., Förster A., Hermelink I., Manteuffel B.V. (2015). Public consultation on the evaluation of directive 2010/31/EU Final Synthesis Report, European Commission, Brussels

Boot P.A. (2009). Energy efficiency obligations in the Netherlands A role for white certificates? ECN Report.

BPIE (Buildings Performance Institute Europe) (2011). Europe’s buildings under the microscope: a country-by country review of the energy performance of buildings. Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE), Brussels.

BPIE (Buildings Performance Institute Europe) (2014). Renovation strategies of selected EU countries: a status report on compliance with Article 4 of the energy efficiency directive. Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE), Brussels.

Braga, M., & Palvarini, P. (2013). Social Housing in the EU. Directorate General for Internal Policies, Brusseles.

BZK (Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties) (2014). Regeling van de Minister voor Wonen en Rijksdienst van 16 juni 2014. nr. 2014-0000293800. houdende vaststelling van regels voor het verstrekken van subsidie in verband met het stimuleren van de verduurzaming van de bestaande woningvoorraad in de sociale huursector (Stimuleringsregeling energieprestatie huursector). (In Dutch) https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/stcrt-2014-17264.

BZK (Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties) (2016a). Cijfers over Wonen en Bouwen 2016. (In Dutch). https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/rapporten/2016/04/11/cijfers-over-wonen-enbouwen-2016.

BZK (Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties) (2016b). De rol van woningcorporaties op de woningmarkt – een WoON 2015-verkenning. (In Dutch). Retrieved from: https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/binaries/rijksoverheid/documenten/publicaties/2016/04/04/rapport-de-rolvan-corporaties-op-de-woningmarkt/De+rol+van+woningcorporaties+op+de+woningmarkt+-+definitief+v2.pdf.

ECN (Energy research Centre of the Netherlands) (2015). Energy efficiency trends and policies in the Netherlands. Report.-Part Odyssee MURE II Proj.

Elsinga, M., & Wassenberg, F. (2014). Social Housing in the Netherlands. In Social Housing in Europe (pp. 21-40): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

European Commission (2008). Communication “Energy efficiency: delivering the 20% target” COM (2008) 772 final. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2008:0772:FIN: EN:PDF (accessed 9 April 15)

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European Commission (2016a). Statistical pocketbook 2016. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/transport/facts-fundings/statistics/pocketbook-2016_en (accessed 27 March 2016).

European Commission (2016b). Impact Assessment –Accompanying the document Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings.

European Parliament, Council of the European Union (2012). Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC Text with EEA relevance.

Eurostat (2016). “Consumption of energy”. Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Consumption_of_energy.

Filippidou, F., Nieboer N. and Visscher H. (2015).Energy efficiency measures implemented in the Dutch non-profit housing sector. In: Proceedings of the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE) Summer School, pp. 979–989, Belambra Presqu’île de Giens, France, 1-6 June 2015

Filippidou, F., Nieboer, N., & Visscher, H. (2016). Energy efficiency measures implemented in the Dutch non-profit housing sector. Energy and Buildings, 132, 107-116, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.05.095.

Filippidou, F., Nieboer, N., & Visscher, H. (2017). Are we moving fast enough? The energy renovation rate of the Dutch non-profit housing using the national energy labelling database. Energy Policy, 109, 488-498, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2017.07.025.

Galvin, R. (2014). Making the ‘rebound effect’more useful for performance evaluation of thermal retrofits of existing homes: defining the ‘energy savings deficit’and the ‘energy performance gap’. Energy and Buildings, 69, 515-524.

ISSO (2009). ISSO 82.3 Formula Structure Publicatie 82.3 Handleiding EPA-W (Formulestructuur). (In Dutch).

Kemeny, J. (2002). From Public Housing Soc Market: Routledge.

Khoury, J., Hollmuller, P., & Lachal, B. M. (2016). Energy performance gap in building retrofit: characterization and effect on the energy saving potential.

Khoury, J., Hollmuller, P., & Lachal, B. M. 2016. Energy performance gap in building retrofit: Characterization and effect on the energy saving potential. 19. status-seminar «Forschen für den bau im kontext von energie und umwelt» Retrieved from http://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:86086

Majcen, D., Itard, L. C. M., & Visscher, H. (2013). Theoretical vs. actual energy consumption of labelled dwellings in the Netherlands: Discrepancies and policy implications. Energy Policy, 54, 125-136, doi:DOI 10.1016/j.enpol.2012.11.008.

Majcen, D., Itard, L., & Visscher, H. (2016). Actual heating energy savings in thermally renovated Dutch dwellings. Energy Policy, 97, 82-92.

Mastrucci, A., Baume, O., Stazi, F., & Leopold, U. (2014). Estimating energy savings for the residential building stock of an entire city: A GIS-based statistical downscaling approach applied to Rotterdam. Energy and Buildings, 75, 358-367.

Mata, É., Kalagasidis, A. S., & Johnsson, F. (2013). Energy usage and technical potential for energy saving measures in the Swedish residential building stock. Energy Policy, 55, 404-414.

Meijer, F., Itard, L., & Sunikka-Blank, M. (2009). Comparing European residential building stocks: performance, renovation and policy opportunities. Building Research & Information, 37(5-6), 533-551, doi:10.1080/09613210903189376.

Nieboer, N., & Gruis, V. (2016). The continued retreat of non-profit housing providers in the Netherlands. [journal article]. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 31(2), 277-295, doi:10.1007/s10901-015-9458-1.

Pombo, O., Rivela, B., & Neila, J. (2016). The challenge of sustainable building renovation: assessment of current criteria and future outlook. Journal of Cleaner Production, 123, 88-100, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.137.

Priemus, H. (2013). The future of social housing. The Dutch case. International Journal of Co-operative Management, 6(2), 13-24.

Rasooli, A., Itard, L., & Ferreira, C. I. (2016). A response factor-based method for the rapid in-situ determination of wall’s thermal resistance in existing buildings. Energy and Buildings, 119, 51-61.

RVO (Netherlands Enterprise Agency) (2011). Voorbeeldwoningen 2011 – Bestaande bouw. (In Dutch). https://www.rvo.nl/sites/default/files/bijlagen/4.%20Brochure%20Voorbeeldwoningen%202011%20bestaande%20bouw.pdf.

RVO (Netherlands Enterprise Agency) (2015). Afgegeven energielabels woningen 2009 – 2014 Cijfers over Wonen en Bouwen. (In Dutch). https://vois.datawonen.nl/jive/jivereportcontents.ashx?report=home_new.

Saheb, Y., Bódis, K., Szabó, S., Ossenbrink, H., & Panev, S. (2015). Energy Renovation: The Trump Card for the New Start for Europe. European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport, JRC Science and Policy Reports.

SER (2013). Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei. (In Dutch)

Sunikka-Blank, M., & Galvin, R. (2012). Introducing the prebound effect: the gap between performance and actual energy consumption. Building Research & Information, 40(3), 260-273.

Thomsen, A., & van der Flier, K. (2002). Updating the Housing Stock. The Need for Renovation.

Tigchelaar C. (2014). Nulmeting subsidieregeling voor verhuurders. (In Dutch). http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten-en-publicaties/rapporten/2014/06/24/nulmetingsubsidieregeling-voor-verhuurders.html

Tigchelaar, C., Daniëls, B., & Menkveld, M. Obligations in the existing housing stock: who pays the bill. In Proceedings of the ECEEE, 2011 (pp. 353-363)

ürge-Vorsatz, D., Koeppel, S., & Mirasgedis, S. (2007). Appraisal of policy instruments for reducing buildings’ CO2 emissions. Building Research & Information, 35(4), 458-477, doi:10.1080/09613210701327384.

van den Brom, P., Meijer, A., & Visscher, H. (2017). Performance gaps in energy consumption: household groups and building characteristics. Building Research & Information, 1-17.

Van Eck, H. (2015). Implementation of the EPBD in the Netherlands – status in November 2015. Neth. Ctry. Report. 2015, (Retrieved from www.buildup.eu).



Chapter 6

Aedes (2017). Corporaties CO2 neutraal in 2050 (In English: Corporations CO2 neutral in 2050). Retrieved from: https://www.aedes.nl/artikelen/bouwen-en-energie/energie-en-duurzaamheid/vernieuwingsagenda/corporaties-co2-neutraal-in-2050.html [accessed 23.2.2018]

Bergsdal, H., Brattebø, H., Bohne, R. A., & Müller, D. B. (2007). Dynamic material flow analysis for Norway’s dwelling stock. Building Research & Information, 35(5), 557-570.

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BPIE (Buildings Performance Institute Europe). (2011). Europe’s buildings under the microscope: A country-by-country review of the energy performance of buildings. Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE). Brussels

BZK (Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties) (2014). Regeling van de Minister voor Wonen en Rijksdienst van 16 juni 2014. nr. 2014-0000293800. houdende vaststelling van regels voor het verstrekken van subsidie in verband met het stimuleren van de verduurzaming van de bestaande woningvoorraad in de sociale huursector (Stimuleringsregeling energieprestatie huursector). (In Dutch) https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/stcrt-2014-17264.

BZK (Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties) (2016a). Cijfers over Wonen en Bouwen 2016. (In Dutch). https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/rapporten/2016/04/11/cijfers-over-wonen-enbouwen-2016.

BZK (Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties) (2016b). De rol van woningcorporaties op de woningmarkt – een WoON 2015-verkenning. (In Dutch). Retrieved from: https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/binaries/rijksoverheid/documenten/publicaties/2016/04/04/rapport-de-rolvan-corporaties-op-de-woningmarkt/De+rol+van+woningcorporaties+op+de+woningmarkt+-+definitief+v2.pdf.

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Elsinga, M., & Wassenberg, F. (2014). Social Housing in the Netherlands. In Social Housing in Europe (pp. 21-40): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Filippidou, F., Nieboer, N., & Visscher, H. (2017). Are we moving fast enough? The energy renovation rate of the Dutch non-profit housing using the national energy labelling database. Energy Policy, 109, 488-498.

Gallardo, C., Sandberg, N. H., & Brattebø, H. (2014). Dynamic-MFA examination of Chilean housing stock: long-term changes and earthquake damage. Building Research & Information, 42(3), 343-358.

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Kemeny, J. (2002). From Public Housing Soc Market: Routledge.

Majcen, D., Itard, L. C. M., & Visscher, H. (2013). Theoretical vs. actual energy consumption of labelled dwellings in the Netherlands: Discrepancies and policy implications. Energy policy, 54, 125-136.

Müller, D. B. (2006). Stock dynamics for forecasting material flows—Case study for housing in The Netherlands. Ecological Economics, 59(1), 142-156.

Nieboer, N., & Gruis, V. (2016). The continued retreat of non-profit housing providers in the Netherlands. [journal article]. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 31(2), 277-295, doi:10.1007/s10901-015-9458-1.

Pauliuk, S., Sjöstrand, K., & Müller, D. B. (2013). Transforming the Norwegian dwelling stock to reach the 2 degrees Celsius climate target. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 17(4), 542-554.

Priemus, H. (2013). The future of social housing. The Dutch case. International Journal of Co-operative Management, 6(2), 13-24.

Sandberg, N. H., Bergsdal, H., & Brattebø, H. (2011). Historical energy analysis of the Norwegian dwelling stock. Building Research and Information, 39(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2010.528186

Sandberg, N. H., Sartori, I., & Brattebø, H. (2014). Using a dynamic segmented model to examine future renovation activities in the Norwegian dwelling stock. Energy and Buildings, 82, 287–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.07.005

Sandberg, N. H., Sartori, I., Heidrich, O., Dawson, R., Dascalaki, E., Dimitriou, S., … Brattebø, H. (2016a). Dynamic building stock modelling: Application to 11 European countries to support the energy efficiency and retrofit ambitions of the EU. Energy and Buildings, 132, 26–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.05.100

Sandberg, N. H., Sartori, I., Vestrum, M. I., & Brattebø, H. (2016b). Explaining the historical energy use in dwelling stocks with a segmented dynamic model: Case study of Norway 1960–2015. Energy and Buildings, 132, 141–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.05.099

Sartori, I., Bergsdal, H., Müller, D. B., & Brattebø, H. (2008). Towards modelling of construction, renovation and demolition activities: Norway’s dwelling stock, 1900–2100. Building Research & Information, 36(5), 412-425.

Sartori, I., Sandberg, N. H., & Brattebø, H. (2016). Dynamic building stock modelling: General algorithm andexemplification for Norway. Energy and Buildings, 132, 13–25.

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Tigchelaar, C., Daniëls, B., & Menkveld, M. (2011). Obligations in the existing housing stock: who pays the bill. In Proceedings of the ECEEE, 2011 (pp. 353-363)

TNO (2009). Report for the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning, and the Environment (VROM) Bouwprognoses 2009-2014.

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How to Cite
FILIPPIDOU, Faidra. Energy performance progress of the Dutch non-profit housing stock: a longitudinal assessment. A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment, [S.l.], n. 14, p. 1-256, june 2018. ISSN 2214-7233. Available at: <https://journals.library.tudelft.nl/index.php/abe/article/view/2400>. Date accessed: 20 may 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.7480/abe.2018.14.2400.
Published
2018-06-07