Transformation in Composition: Ecdysis of Landscape Architecture through the Brownfield Park Project 1975-2015

  • Rene van der Velde TU Delft, Architecture and the Built Environment

Abstract

This study enlarges on the notion of composition in landscape architecture. It builds upon the ‘Delft method’, which elaborates composition as a methodological framework from its sister discipline architecture. At the same time takes a critical stance in respect to this framework, informed by recent epistemological developments in landscape architecture such as the site-specificity and process discourses. The notion of composition is examined from a historical and theoretical perspective, before turning to an examination of the brownfield park project realised in the period 1975-2015. These projects emerge as an important laboratory and catalyst for developments in landscape architecture, whereby contextual, process, and formal-aesthetic aspects emerge as central themes. The thesis of this research is that a major theoretical and methodological expansion of the notion of composition can be distilled from the brownfield park project, in which seemingly irreconcilable paradigms such as site and process are incorporated.

By extension, the study elaborates on the disciplinary specificity of landscape architecture as distinct to its sister disciplines architecture and urbanism, propositioning a ‘radical maturation’ of the foundations of the discipline in the period 1975 – 2015, via the brownfield park project. A metaphor for this process is offered by the phenomenon of ecdysis in arthropods (such as the blue swimmer crab), whereby the growth from juvenile to adult takes place in stages involving the moulting of an inelastic exoskeleton. Once shed, a larger exoskeleton is formed, whose shape and character is significantly different to its forebears. The research sketches the contours of a similar ‘disciplinary ecdysis’ in the period 1975-2015, whereby an evolution of design-as-composition praxis in landscape architecture takes place.

In the slipstream of these findings, the research sheds new light on the shifts in the form and content of the city itself in this period, and the agency of the urban park in the problematique of the contemporary urban realm. In the cases studied, the park typology has been able to address problems that much of the traditional apparatus of spatial planning and design has failed to do. By extension, the study reveals that many of the paradigms of urban planning and design are in need of major review in the context of deindustrialization. The urban park typology – in its guise as the brownfield park – also appears also able to shape and qualify larger urban regions. As such, the research highlights the rise of brownfield lands and their impact on the fabric of the city, the life of their inhabitants and the paradigms that dominate urban cultures, in turn fundamentally revising the definitions and agencies of notions such as city, nature and landscape.

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Steenbergen, C., & Reh, W. (2011). Metropolitan Landscape Architecture: Urban Parks and Landscapes. Bussum: THOTH publishers.

Steiner, F. (1991). The Living Landscape; an Ecological Approach to Landscape Planning. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Stiles, R. (1994a). In Search of a Definition. Landscape Design, 234, 44-48.

Stiles, R. (1994b). Landscape Theory: A Missing Link between Landscape Planning and Landscape Design? Landscape and Urban Planning, 30, 139-149.

Stilgoe, J. (1982). Common Landscape of America, 1580 to 1845. New Haven, NJ: Yale University Press.

Thompson, I. (1999). Ecology, Community and Delight. Sources of Values in Landscape Architecture. London & New York: Taylor & Francis.

Thompson, G., & Steiner F. (Eds.). (1997). Ecological Design and Planning. New York: Wiley.

Turner, T. (1990). Was “Landscape Architecture” a Good Idea? Landscape Design 191: 28-29.

Van der Ree, P. (1988). Manierisme: Dubbelzinnigheid als Aanzet tot Beweging. Oase 20: 24-29.

Van der Ree, P., Smienk, G., & Steenbergen, C. M. (1992). Italian villas and gardens. Munich: Prestel Verlag.

Van der Zwart, J. (2004). Tussen Haard & Horizon: Landschapsarchitectonische Bouwstenen. Amsterdam: Sun.

Vitruvius, P. (1999). Ten Books on Architecture (I. D. Rowland, T. N. Howe, & M., Dewar, Trans.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published ca. 1st century B.C.)

Vroom, M. (2006). Lexicon of Garden and Landscape Architecture. Basel, Boston & Berlin: Birkhäuser.

Waldheim, C. (2006). Landscape as Urbanism. In: C. Waldheim, (Ed.), The Landscape Urbanism Reader (pp. 35-54). New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press.

Wolman, A. (1965). The Metabolism of Cities. Scientific American (March): 178-90.



Part Two

Alker, S., Joy, V., Roberts, P., & Smith, N. (2000). The Definition of Brownfield. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 43(1): 49-69.

APUR (1981). Les Espace vert de Paris: Situation et Projets. Paris: Atelier Parisien d’Urbanisme

Baltzarek, F., & Schediwy, R. (1981): Der Ökonomische Ursprung der Großen Gärten und Parks der Europäischen Metropolen. In: Landschaft und Stadt. 12: 161-173.

Benazon, N. (1995). Soil Remediation: A Practical Overview of Canadian Cleanup Strategies and Commercially available Technology. Hazardous Materials Management 7(5): 10–26.

Braae, E. (2015). Beauty Redeemed: Recycling Post-Industrial Landscapes. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag.

Chmielewska, & Otto, M. (2014). Revitalisation of Spoil Tips and Socio-Economic Polarisation – A Case Study of the Ruhr Area (Germany). Environmental & Socio-economic Studies 2(2): 45-56.

Da Sousa, C. (2003). Turning brownfields into green space in the City of Toronto. Landscape and Urban Planning 62(4): 181-198.

De Sousa, C. (2006). Urban brownfields redevelopment in Canada: the role of Local

Government. The Canadian Geographer 50(3): 392–407.

Dettingmeijer, R. (1991). Het Nieuwe Stadspark: Opvallende Vormen en Pakkende Scenarios. In: T. Boersma & G. Ter Haar, (Eds.), Het Nieuwe Stadspark (16-32). Rotterdam: NAI publishers.

Dixon, T. (2007). Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration: Liveable Places from Problem Spaces. Oxford: Blackwell.

Duménil, G., and Foley, D.K. (2008) The Marxian Transformation Problem. In S. N. Durlauf and L. B. Blume, (Eds.), The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Eurelco (2017). Data launched on the Landfill Situation in the EU-28. Retrieved 1 May, 2017, from: https://www.eurelco.org/infographic

Grimski, D., & Ferber, U. (2002). Brownfields and Redevelopment of Urban Areas. Vienna: Federal Environment Agency.

Harnik, P. (2010). Innovative Parks for Resurgent Cities. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Hough, M. (2001). Foreword. In N. Kirkwood, (Ed.), Manufactured Sites: Rethinking the Post-Industrial Landscape. (pp. 16-18). London: Spon Press.

Knox, P., & Pinch, S. (2000). Urban Social Geography. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

G.A.O. (2004). Report to Congressional Requestors: Brownfield Redevelopment; Stakeholders Report that EPA’s Program helps to Redevelop Sites, but additional measures could complement Agency Efforts. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Accountability Office.

Naidu, R. (2014). Dealing with contaminated sites in Australia. Retrieved April 12, 2016, from http://www.sustainabilitymatters.net.au/content/sustainability/article/dealing-with-contaminated-sites-in-australia-1045413179.

Oliver, L., Ferber, U., Grimski, D., Millar, K., & Nathanail, P. (2005). The Scale and Nature of European Brownfields. In Proceedings of CABERNET 2005: The International Conference on Managing Urban Land, 274-281. Land Quality Management Press: Nottingham.

Sisson, K. (1989). Toxic Real Estate Manual. Toronto: Wilms and Shier.

Soja, E. (1989). Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory. New York: Verso.

US EPA (1997). National Brownfields Assessment Pilot, Cleveland, O: Washington D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency.

UK DETR (1998). Derelict Land Surveys in 1988 and 1993. London: Department of Environment, Transport & the Regions.

US EPA (1997). Brownfield Overview and Definition. Retrieved March 14, 2016, from https://http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/brownfield-overview-and-definition.

US GS (2016). Definition of Past Producers. Retrieved 21 December 2016, from https://mrdata.usgs.gov/mrds.

Yount, K. (2003). What are Brownfields? Finding a Conceptual Definition. Environmental Practice 5: 25-33.



Part Three

Chapter 6

APUR (1981). Les Espace vert de Paris: Situation et Projets. Paris: Atelier Parisien d’Urbanisme

Avermaete, T. & Havik, K. (2008). Accommodating the Public Sphere: Bernard Tschumi’s dynamic definition of Architecture. Oase 77: 43-57.

Baljon, L. (1992). Designing Parks: an Examination of Contemporary Approaches to Design in Landscape Architecture. Amsterdam: Architectura & Natura Press.

Barnhart, R. (1988). Folly. The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology. New York: H. W. Wilson Co.

Boersma, T. & Ter Haar, G. (Eds.), Het Nieuwe Stadspark. Rotterdam: NAI publishers.

Broadbent, G. (Ed.). (1991). Deconstruction: a Student Guide, London: Academy Editions.

Casey, E. (1997). The Fate of Place: A Philosophical History. Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.

Corner, J. (1999). Preface. In: Author, (Ed.), Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture (pp. ix-xi). New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press.

De Jong, E. (1998). De tuin als derde natuur. Een beschouwing over natuur en kunst. Theoretische Geschiedenis 25(2/3): 97-112.

De Jong, E. (2007a). Natuurlijke Verwantschap: Over Tuin en Landschapsarchitectuur.. In: J. Rodermond, (Ed.), Perspectief (pp. 18-45). Rotterdam: Netherlands Architecture Fund.

De Jong, E. and M. Dominicus-van Soest (1999). De tuin in de verbeelding 1770-2000. In: E. De Jong (Ed.) Aardse Paradijzen: De Tuin in de Nederlandse Kunst, 1770 tot 2000 (11-82). Exhibition catalogue Frans Halsmuseum, 20-03-1999 – 30-05-1999; Rijksmuseum Twente, 19-06-1999 – 29-08-1999. Gent: Snoeck-Ducaju & Zoon.

Dettingmeijer, R. (1991). Het Nieuwe Stadspark: Opvallende Vormen en Pakkende Scenarios. In: T. Boersma & G. Ter Haar, (Eds.), Het Nieuwe Stadspark (16-32). Rotterdam: NAI publishers.

EPPV (1982). Parc de la Villette Concours International: Rapport d’ Objectifs, Programme, Données sur l’ Existant. Paris: Etablissement Public du Parc de La Villette.

Freytag, A. (2003). When the Railway conquered the Garden: Velocity in Parisian and Viennese parks. In: M. Conan (Ed.), Landscape Design and the Experience of Motion (215-243). Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Hardingham, S., & Kester, R. (2011). Supercrit #4: Bernard Tschumi, Parc de la Villette. London: Routledge.

Huet, B. (1993). Park design and Urban Continuity. In: M. Knuijt, H. Ophuis & P. van Saane, (Eds.), Modern Park Design: Recent Trends (18-27). Bussum: Thoth.

Hunt, J. D. (2000). Greater Perfections: The Practice of Garden Theory. London: Thames & Hudson

Lazzaro, C. (1990). The Italian Renaissance Garden: From the Conventions of Planting, Design, and Ornament to the Grand Gardens of Sixteenth-century Central Italy. New Haven, London: Yale University Press.

Le Dantec, J. (2002). Le Sauvage et le Ré gulier, Art des Jardins et Paysagisme en France au XXe siècle. Paris: Le Moniteur.

Meyer, E. (1991). The Public Park as Avante-Garde (Landscape) Architecture: A Comparative Interpretation of Two Parisian Parks, Parc de la Villette (1983-1990) and Parc des Buttes-Chaumont (1864-1867). Landscape Journal 10(1): 16-26.

Schivelbusch, W. (1986). The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space in the 19th Century. Leamington Spa, Hamburg & New York: Berg.

Steenbergen, C. M. (1990). De stap over de horizon. Een ontleding van het formele ontwerp in de landschapsarchitectuur. Delft: Delft University of Technology. PhD Dissertation.

Steenbergen, C. & Van der Kooij, E. (1991). Het montagelandschap. Het stadspark als actuele ontwerpopgave. Delft: Publicatieburo Bouwkunde TU Delft.

Steenbergen, C., & Reh, W. (2011). Metropolitan Landscape Architecture: Urban Parks and Landscapes. Bussum: THOTH publishers.

Sudjic, D. (1992). The 100 Mile City. London: Andre Deutsch.

Tate, A. (2001). Great City Parks. Oxon: Spon Press.

Treib, M. (1995). Must Landscapes Mean? Approaches to Significance in Recent Landscape Architecture. Landscape Journal 14(1), 47-62.

Tschumi, B. (1987). Cinegram Folie: le Parc de la Villette. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Architectural Press.



Chapter 7

Banerjee, T. (2001). The Future of Public Space: Beyond Invented Streets and Reinvented Places. Journal of the American Planning Association 67(1): 9-24.

Berrizbeita, A. (1999). The Amsterdam Bos: the modern public park and the construction of collective experience. In: J. Corner, (Ed.), Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture (pp. 186-203). New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press.

Berrizbeitia, A. (2007). Re-Placing Process. In: J. Czerniak & G. Hargreaves, (Eds.), Large Parks (pp. 175-197). New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press.

Boyer, M. (1993). The City of Illusion: New York’s public places. In: P. Knox, (Ed.), The Restless Urban Landscape (pp. 111-126). Eaglewood, NJ: Prentice Hill.

Casey, E. (1997). The Fate of Place: A Philosophical History. Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.

Cook, R. (2000). Do Landscapes Learn? Ecology’s ‘New Paradigm’ and Design in Landscape Architecture. In: M. Conan, (Ed.), Environmentalism in Landscape (pp.115-132). Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library & Collection.

Corner, J. (1992). Representation and Landscape: Drawing and Making in the Landscape Medium. Word & Image 8(3): 243-275.

Corner, J. (1999). The Agency of Mapping: Speculation, Critique and Invention. In: D. Cosgrove, (Ed.), Mappings (pp. 213-252). London: Reaktion Books.

Corner, J. (1999). Preface. In: Author, (Ed.), Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture (pp. ix-xi). New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press.

De Jong, E. (2007a). Natuurlijke Verwantschap: Over Tuin en Landschapsarchitectuur.. In: J. Rodermond, (Ed.), Perspectief (pp. 18-45). Rotterdam: Netherlands Architecture Fund.

De Jong, E. (2008). Landscapes of the Imagination. In: M. Lafaille, C. Bertram & Author, (Eds.), Landscapes of the Imagination: Designing the European Tradition of Garden and Landscape (8-25) Rotterdam: NAI.

Diedrich, L. (1999). No Politics, No Park: The Duisburg-Nord Model. Topos: European Landscape Magazine. 26: 29-38.

Diedrich, L. (2013). Translating Harbourscapes. Site-specific design approaches in contemporary European harbour transformation. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen. PhD Dissertation.

Featherstone, M. (1998). The Flaneur, the City and the Virtual Public Realm. Urban Studies 35(5/6): 909-925.

Gilbert, O. L. (2005). Urban Ecology: Progress and Problems. Journal of Practical Ecology and Conservation Special Series 4: 5–9.

Hargreaves, G. (2007). Large Parks: A Designer’s Perspective. In: J. Czerniak & G. Hargreaves, (Eds.), Large Parks (pp. 121-173). New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press.

Hunt, J. D. (2004). The Afterlife of Gardens. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Keulartz, J. (2015). Nietsche’s post-industriele landschap. Filosofie & Praktijk 36(2): 21-35.

Knuijt, M., Ophuis H., & Van Saane, P. (Eds.), (1993). Modern Park Design: Recent Trends. Bussum: Thoth.

Langner, S. (2011). Landschaftsmaschine; Landschaftsproduzierende Kräfte im Ruhrgebiet. In: C. Reicher, J. Polívka, F. Roost, Y. Utku, M. Wegener, (Eds.), Schichten einer Region – Kartenstücke zur räumlichden Struktur des Ruhrgebiets. (pp. 132 - 157). Berlin: Jovis Verlag.

Latz, P. (1993). ‘Design’ by Handling the Existing. In: M. Knuijt, H. Ophuis & P. van Saane, (Eds.), Modern Park Design: Recent Trends (90-101). Bussum: Thoth.

Latz, P. (2000). The Idea of Making Time Visible. Topos 33: 97.

Latz, P. (2001). Landscape Park Duisburg-Nord: The metamorphosis of an industrial site. In N. Kirkwood, (Ed.), Manufactured Sites: Rethinking the Post-Industrial Landscape. (pp. 150–161). London: Spon Press.

Latz, P. (2016). Rust Red: The Landscape Park Duisburg Nord. München: Hirmer Publishers.

Lofland, L. (1998). The Public Realm: Exploring the City’s Quintessential Social Territory. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.

Nijhuis, S. (2015). GIS-based Landscape Design Research: Stourhead Garden as Case Study. Delft: TU Delft. PhD Dissertation.

Oldenburg, R. (1998). The Great Good Place: Cafés, Coffee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons, and Other Hangouts at the Heart of a Community. New York, NY: Marlowe & Company.

Pickett, S., Parker, V., & Fiedler, P. (1992). The new paradigm in ecology: implications for conservation biology above the species level. In: P Fiedler, & S. Jain, (Eds.). Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation and Management (pp. 65-88). New York & London: Chapman and Hall.

Rosenberg, E. (2009). Gardens, Landscape, Nature: Duisburg-Nord, Germany. In: S. Iliescu, (Ed.), The Hand and the Soul: Aesthetics and Ethics in Architecture and Art (209-230). Berkeley: University of Virginia Press.

Sandercock, L. (1997). Towards Cosmopolis. London: Academy Editions.

Sieverts, T. (2004). Cities Without Cities: An Interpretation of the Zwischenstadt. London: Routledge.

Tate, A. (2001). Great City Parks. Oxon: Spon Press.

Tate, A. (2015). Great City Parks. 2nd Edition. New York & Oxon: Routledge.

Tiesdell, S. and T. Oc (1998). Beyond ‘fortress’ and ‘panoptic’ cities - towards a safer urban public realm. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 25(5): 639-655.

Treib, M. (2016). Foreword: an Industrial Sublime. In: P. Latz, Rust Red: The Landscape Park Duisburg Nord. München: Hirmer Publishers.

Valentien, D. (1991). Ein Park des 21. Jahrhunderts? Garten + Landschaft 10: 25-30.

Weilacher, U. (1996). Between Landscape Architecture and Land Art. Basel: Birkhauser.

Weilacher, U. (2008). Syntax of landscape: the landscape architecture of Peter Latz and Partners. Basel: de Gruyter.

Winkels, R., & Zieling, G. (2009). Landschafstpark Duisburg-Nord. Vom Eisenkochtopf zum Erlebnispark. Duisburg: Mercator-Verlag.



Chapter 8

Barbanel, J. (2016). The High Line’s ‘Halo Effect’ on Property. Wall Street Journal. 8 August.

Bowring, J. (2009). Lament for a Lost Landscape. Landscape Architecture 99: 127-128.

Bridges, W., Morris, G., De Witt, S., & Rutherfurd, J. (1811). Map Of The City Of New York And Island Of Manhattan With Explanatory Remarks And References. New York: William Bridges.

Buttenweiser, A. L. (1999). Manhattan Water-bound: Manhattan’s Waterfront from the Seventeenth Century to the Present. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Friends of the High Line. (2008). Designing the High Line: Gansevoort Street to 30th Street. New York, NY: Friends of the High Line.

Darke, R. (2014). Grasses. In: A. LaFarge (Ed.), On the High Line: Exploring New York’s most original urban park (p.116). New York, NY: Thames & Hudson.

David, J. & Hock, K. (2002). Reclaiming the Highline. New York, NY: Design Trust for Public Space & Friends of the High Line.

Foote, T. W. (2004). Black and White Manhattan: The History of Racial Formation in Colonial New York. New York: Oxford University Press.

Friends of the High Line. “High Line Staff and Board”. http://www.thehighline.org/about/staff-and-board-members from the original on May 4, 2015. Retrieved May 19, 2015.

Gopnik, A. (2001). A Walk on the High Line: The Allure of a Derelict Railroad Track in Spring. In: Sternfeld, J., Gopnik, A., & Stilgoe, J. (Eds.), Walking the High Line (pp. 48-49). New York & Gottingen: Pace/McGill Gallery.

Gregor, A. (2010). As a Park Runs Above, Deals Stir Below. The New York Times. August 10.

Hammond, R. D., Joshua (2011). High Line: The Inside Story of New York City’s Park in the Sky. New York: Farrer, Straus & Giroux.

Helphand, K. (2013). A New Eye Level: Mnemonics Of The High Line. In: M. Dion (Ed.), The High Line: A Field Guide and Handbook (30-37). New York, NY: Printed Matter Inc.

James Corner Field Operations and Diller Scofido + Renfro (2015). The High Line: Foreseen Unforeseen. London: Phaidon.

Koblin, J. (2007). High Line Park Spurs Remaking Of Formerly Grotty Chelsea. The New York Observer. April 2.

Koolhaas, R. (1994). Delirious New York: A retroactive manifesto for Manhattan. New York, NY: Monacelli Press.

LaFarge, A. (Ed.) (2012). On the High Line: Exploring New York’s most original park. New York, NY: Thames & Hudson.

Lopate, P. (2004). Waterfront: A Journey Around Manhattan. New York, NY: Crown.

McEntee, P. (2012). Deconstructing the High Line: The representation and reception of nature in post- industrial urban park design. Denver: University Of Colorado.

McGrane, S. (2008). A Landscape in Winter, Dying Heroically. New York Times. January 31.

Morris, B. (2002). New York Voices: Joel Sternfeld (Video, file]. Retrieved 5 April 2015 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =lNzr7g8FQgk

Nijhuis, S. (2015). GIS-based Landscape Design Research: Stourhead Garden as Case Study. Delft: TU Delft. PhD Dissertation.

O’Malley, T. (1999). The lawn in early American landscape and garden design. In: G. Teyssot (Ed.), The American Lawn. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Architectural Press.

Pogrebin, R. (2009). First Phase of High Line Is Ready for Strolling. The New York Times. June 9.

Richardson, T. (2012). The Line of Beauty. Gardens Illustrated (January): 45-49.

Sanderson, E. (2007). Mannahatta: An Ecological First Look at the Manhattan Landscape Prior to Henry Hudson. Northeastern Naturalist 14(4): 545-570.

Stalter, R. (2004). The Flora on the High Line, New York City, New York. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society Vol. 131(4): 387-393.

Sternbergh, A. (2007). The High Line: It Brings Good Things to Life. New York Magazine. April 29.

Sternfeld, J., Gopnik, A., & Stilgoe, J., (Eds.) (2001). Walking the High Line. New York & Gottingen: Pace/McGill Gallery.

Tate, A. (2015). Great City Parks. 2nd Edition. New York & Oxon: Routledge.

Ulam, A. (2009). Back on Track: Bold design moves transform a defunct railroad into a 21st-century park. Landscape Architecture 99(10): 90-109.



Chapter 9

Braae, E., & Diedrich, L. (2012). Site Specificity in Contemporary Large-scale Harbour Transformation Projects. Journal of Landscape Architecture 7(1), 20-33.

Girot, C. (2016). The Course of Landscape Architecture: A History of our Designs on the Natural World, from Prehistory to the Present. London: Thames & Hudson.

Hepburn, R. (1966). Contemporary Aesthetics and the Neglect of Natural Beauty. In: B. Williams & A. Montefiore, (Eds.), British Analytical Philosophy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Meyer, E. (2005). Site Citations. In: C. Burns, & A. Kahn, (Eds.), Site Matters: Design Concepts, Histories, and Strategies. New York, NY: Routledge.



Chapter 10

Arendt, H. (1958). The Human Condition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Crutzen, P.(2002). Geology of Mankind, The Anthropocene. Nature, 415(23).

Drucker, P. (1959). Landmarks of Tomorrow. New York, NY: Harper.

Habermas, J. & Ben-Habib, S. (1981). Modernity versus Postmodernity. New German Critique, 22: 3-14.

Heidegger, M., Macquarrie, J., & Robinson, E. (1962). Being and Time. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Leatherbarrow, D. (2004). Topographical Stories: Studies in Landscape and Architecture. Philadelphia, MA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Toulmin, S. (1992). Cosmopolis: The Hidden Agenda of Modernity. Chicago, Il: University of Chicago Press.
How to Cite
VAN DER VELDE, Rene. Transformation in Composition. A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment, [S.l.], n. 9, p. 1-350, june 2018. ISSN 2214-7233. Available at: <https://journals.library.tudelft.nl/index.php/abe/article/view/2396>. Date accessed: 23 may 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.7480/abe.2018.9.2396.
Published
2018-06-06