Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI): German and Dutch Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

  • Cornelia Redeker TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment


While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are negotiating the border between the river and the urban realm. This produces complex spatial constellations between the river system and the urban realm with a diverse set of interdependencies, where programs have to synergize while adapting to dynamic water levels. Based on an expanding area at risk and the reliance on flood levels to remain within an acceptable spectrum for adaptive measures to be effective, Urban Flood Integration (UFI) involves border negotiations between the river and the urban realm where adaptation and mitigation ideally synergize.

Instead of a scientific approach that reduces complexity in order to reach a verifiable question, a post-normal science approach is chosen as an evaluation and working method applied within this research. The working method relies on literature studies, semi-structured interviews and empirical research through repeated site visits. The general heterogeneity of the case studies regarding their planning structure, status and time scales, data availability and the willingness by the agencies involved to provide usable information shapes the formal research structure.

Part I serves as a narrative for the case study analysis and for the final conclusions and recommendations in Part II. It is made up of three chapters, where Urban Flood Integration is framed historically, theoretically and strategically within the specific geographic context of the navigable Rhine:

Anthropogenic transformations of the Rhine flood plains in the 19th and 20th century have turned formerly wide, often meandering or bifurcating river beds into urbanized embankments along straight, channelled rivers. The perception of the river changed from being dynamic to being controllable. This produced the spatial backdrop for modernist and therefore sectoral developments based on a dialectical relationship between the urban realm and the (river) landscape. Yet, as conversions of former harbours are turning sites outside the flood defence into inner city living quarters, as retention polders are positioned in flood plains with enough damage potential to threaten regional economies, and flood mitigating measures are more viable/effective on site in the middle of the city than in a rural area, site specific negotiations between simultaneous programmatic claims are producing new urban typologies/ecologies that in turn demand and rely on a new methodological approach. Within this research design is considered not only a spatial, but also a strategic tool capable of not only linking different programs, but also different disciplines.

Flood Risk Management along the Rhine today combines river expanding measures and adaptive strategies with the existing defensive system to cope with the risk increase as a consequence of previous interventions and developments and fluctuations in water levels due to climate change. Differences in landscapes and urgencies and differences in planning cultures between the Upper and Lower Rhine and the Delta have also led to different strategic approaches. Within this research the innovative capacity of the adaptive and anticipatory water-based approach in the Netherlands provides lessons to be learned specifically regarding spatial quality as a strategic component of water-related projects.

In Part II, the investigation of two Dutch and two German urbanized water front developments along different river segments of the Rhine according to their synergetic potential, but also regarding the temporal and spatial interdependencies between the river system as a whole, the regional context as well as the actual water front as the project site, aims to examine the following questions: Between adaptive and mitigative strategies, what is the spectrum of spatial constellations between urban development and flood management within the constraints set by navigation and a (partial) restoration of the dynamic river landscape? How are temporal and spatial interdependencies shaping these projects? Relational diagrams show the reciprocations between urban development and river dynamics of each investigated case study and the respective agencies and processes involved. The case study analysis serves as a basis for recommendations for the architectural and programmatic scope of flood-resilient projects dealing with expansive flood management strategies and respectively a strategic design approach addressing multiple scales and programs. Embedded in an exemplary atlas of the respective typology along the different Rhine segments, the four case studies from south to north are:

  • Karlsruhe Rappenwört, a steered retention polder along the meandering Upper Rhine
  • Mainz Zollhafen, a port conversion with flood adaptive housing along the bifurcating Upper Rhine
  • Nijmegen Lent, a bypass and urban extension based on a dike set back along the Waal
  • Dordrecht Stadswerven, an urban development outside the dikes in the Delta

In summary, differences in landscape, threat and political structures have produced different planning cultures in Germany and the Netherlands in terms of flood management. Both Dutch and German mitigation measures remain path dependent on the defensive system. Yet, whereas the Dutch approach to flood mitigation is holistic in an extended ecological sense and specifically includes spatial quality, in Germany, planning flood-related issues remains part of a sectoral approach where spatial quality is not initially included, bit remains an additional layer towards the end of the project. Confronted with a strong ecological lobby, the focus is to restore the former alluvial forest in niches. Of the six programs defined in the ICPR Atlas, forestry seems the only one capable of taking on river dynamics and transforming accordingly over time. All other programs (settlements, industries, traffic infrastructure, and to some degree agriculture, specifically when ecological flooding is taken into account) remain reliant on defensive measures, and in case of their failure, infrastructural support and adaptation measures. They are, however, not included in a design strategy that explores potentialities.

In the light of long-term strategies and programs, the Dutch approach offers a more iterative planning practice that is capable of evolving with the experience gained. Dutch experience and corresponding policy adaptation has further shown that a more permissive planning approach to allow additional programs within Room for the River measures can raise local acceptance and thus reduce negative effects. In Germany, water management agencies avoid projects that could become precedence cases and thus enable repetition. This restrictive approach is a hindrance on the way to larger-scale strategies that rely on pilot projects as testing grounds. The Dutch approach seems to aim for incentives and actually provides them, as the trade-off in the Nijmegen case shows. Moving from a restrictive to a responsive planning approach that includes incentives produces a breeding ground and should always be a central component of any strategy. One of the main findings of this research is, specifically in Germany, the limited availability of information, as well as lacking visualization layers of ongoing programs and projects (which may be an additional indication of the lacking involvement of designers in German spatial flood risk management projects). This research contributes to a broader understanding by providing an atlas of selected flood-adaptation and flood-mitigation typologies along the Rhine between Basel and Rotterdam.

Directly adressing the design practice, this research proposes to move from a spatial to a strategic design approach by

involving architects, landscape architects, urban designers from the initial stage to enable their engagement also in the strategic design of a project;

enabling design to become part of a systemic approach that aims for capacity building and therefore includes ecological, economic and cultural conditions through a transdisciplinary approach;

making the invisible layers visible: Visualize systems/expert information to make them accessible and to enable communication between disciplines;

hosting design competitions in cooperation with local stakeholders bringing people and ideas together to trigger emergence;

applying back-casting strategies to move beyond existing conceptions: design may thus becomes “telescopic” and allow a challenge of existing givens, the visualization of concepts again playing a central role.

Two follow-up research projects are proposed:

Development of Design Guidelines for a river segments approach: Evaluation of ongoing or recent mitigation and adaptation projects, but also other river-related developments (e.g. navigation) in an academic research project to define potential emergent capacities between systemic and qualitative elements. In collaboration with the practice, smaller scale pilots as part of existing mitigation programs on a river segment scale could aim to substantiate the findings.

Cost-Benefit-Analysis Spatial Quality: To substantiate the qualitatively developed argument towards Urban Flood Integration (UFI), a cost-benefit analysis of a transdisciplinary layer that is comparable to the measures defined by the Dutch Quality Team for the German Room for the River, which focus today on ecological rejuvenation vs. spatial quality as a secondary aim.

The final outcome of the following multiple case-study investigation and the typological atlas provided is seen to be valuable for a number of different organizations, such as governmental and educational institutions dealing with the geospecific context and spatial development along the Rhine, representatives from the building sector and venture capitalists, as well as people with a personal interest in ecological urbanism in the context of the Rhine.


Aerts, J. (2009). Adaptation Costs in the Netherlands: Climate Change and Flood Risk Management, in: Climate Research Netherlands-Research Highlights: 34-44.

Aerts, J. C. J. H., Bannink, B., Sprong, T. A. (2008). Aandacht voor Veiligheid. IVM Report 95-6.

Ahrends, D. (2007). Der Strom Und Die Warenströme, Rheinkonferenz Regionale 2010, Cologne.

Allen, S. (1999). Architecture, Technique and Representation, Routledge, London.

Allen, T.F.H. (2009). Scale and Type – A Requirement for Adressing Complexity with Dynamical Quality. in: Waltner-Toews, D., Kay, J. J., Lister, N.-M. (ed.), The Ecosystem Aproach, Columbia University Press, New York.

Andermatt Conley, V. (2010). Urban Ecological Practices: Félix Guattari’s three Ecologies. in: Mostafavi, M. with Doherty, G. (ed.), Ecological Urbanism, Harvard University GSD, Lars Mueller publishers: 138-139.

Arcadis, Gemeente Dordrecht, waterschap Hollandse Delta en Servicecentrum Drechtsteden (2009). Waterplan Dordrecht 2009-2015, Dordrecht.

Arnold, G., Bos, H., Doef, R., Goud, R., Kielen, N., Luijn van, F. (2011). Water Management In the Netherlands, Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment, Directorate-General Water and Rijkswaterstaat, Centre for Water Management.

Aronson, S. and B. (2010). Man-made landscapes in a world of extremes. in: Donata Valentien (ed.), Return of landscape, Jovis Publishers, Berlin: 202-213.

Baumann, W. (2010). press release on Altrip/Waldsee/Neuhofen, Würzburg, January 21 http://www.neuhofen.de/neuhofen/de/news/news_details/2010/news-20100204.php

Bava, H., Helleckes, S., Loydl, G., Dieterle, J. (2002). Karlsruhe 2030, Bindeglied Rheinlandschaft, räumliche Verknüpfung in der Stadtlandschaft Karlsruhe, Teilprojekt 1 des Verbundprojektes Stadt 2030, Institut für Garten und Landschaft, TH Karlsruhe.

Bax, J. , Walwijk, van, S., Stelt, van der, A., Hermans, W. (2008). Ontwerpend onderzoek naar hoogwaterbestendige ontwikkeling buitendijkse stad, UFM Dordrecht.

Beck, U. (1999). World Risk Society. Polity Press, Cambridge.

Beck, U. (2007). Weltrisikogesellschaft. Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main.

Bélanger, P. (2009). Landscape as Infrastructure. Landscape Journal 28/1: 74-95.

Bélanger, P. Redefining Infrastructure, in: Mostafavi, M. with Doherty, G. (ed.), Ecological Urbanism, Harvard University GSD, Lars Mueller publishers: p. 332-349.

Belanger, P., Lister N.-M. et al (2010). Depoldering Dordrecht. Harvard GSD Studio.

Bell, D. (1973). The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, New York.

Bergh van den, D., Pas van de, B. (2008). Policy en Governance, proceedings UFM Dordrecht.

Bernau, V. (2009). Subventionen versenken, Süddeutsche Zeitung, December 9.

Bernhardt, C. (2000). Ein Natureingriff ungewöhnlichen Ausmaßes, Die Rheinkorrektion, in: Der Bürger im Staat, Der Rhein, 2/2000, LPBBW, Stuttgart.

Bezirksregierung Düsseldorf (2006). NRW Hochwasserschutzkonzept des Landes bis 2015 (Vorlage 16.8.).

Blackbourn, D. (2006). The Conquest of Nature- Water, Landscape and the Making of Modern Germany. W. W. Norton & Company Inc. New York.

Boelens, R. L., Sanders, W., (2003). The big KAN Atlas, Uitgeverij 010 Publishers.

Boo de and Middelkoop (1999). Twice a river, Rhine and Meuse in the Netherlands, The Hague.

Botzen, W.J.W., Aerts, J.C.J.H., Bergh van den, J.C.J.M (2009). Willingness of homeowners to mitigate climate risk through insurance. Ecological Economics forthcoming.

Braudel, F. (1958). Histoire et sciences sociales: La longue durée. Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales 13.4, October - December: 725–753.

Bronstert, A. et al (2001). LaHor Quantifizierung des Einflusses der Landoberfläche und der Ausbaumaßnahmen am Gewässer auf die Hochwasserbedingungen im Rheingebiet, IRMA-Code 3/DU/1/002.

Bubeck, te Linde (2011). Future flood risk estimates along the river Rhine, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11:459-473 Bundeshochwasserschutzgesetz (2007).

Burke, G. L. (1956). The Making of Dutch towns - a study in urban development from the tenth to the seventeenth centuries, London.

Buuren, M. v., ed. (2002). Jammen op de Lagen Blues, projectteam Ruimtekoepel project RaRa, Bouwdienst RWS, Utrecht.

Cioc, M. (2002). The Rhine - an Ecobiography, University of Washington Press, Seattle+London

Corner, James (1999). Eidetic Operations and New Landscapes. Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture, ed. James Corner, Princeton Architectural Press, New York: 153-169.

Cosgrove, D. (2003). Apollo’s Eye: A Cartographic Genealogy of the Earth in the Western Imagination. John Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Cuppen, M., Stalenberg, B., Redeker, C. (2009). DIKE RELOCATION NIJMEGEN-LENT: EXAMPLE OF ADAPTIVE WATER MANAGEMENT? in: Proceedings of NIG Workconference 2009. Leiden: 1-2.

Daly (1992). Steady-State Economics. Island Press, Washington D.C.

Decaix; P. , Redeker, C. (2002), Isotopia, in: Research For Research, Berlage-Institute, Rotterdam

Delft Hydraulics (2002). IRMA Sponge, executive summary report

Deltacommissie 2008 (2008). Samenwerken aan water. Een land dat leeft bouwt aan zijn toekomst.

Dürr, E., Pfarr, U. (2008). Erholungskonzept Rheinauen. Regierungspräsidium Freiburg

Ebner, K.-H. (2010). Vorlandmanagement - Erfahrungen aus niederbayrischen Flusstälern, in: Auen und Hochwasser, Forum für Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung, 27.10,Ingolstadt: 81-93.

ECTP European Construction Technology Platform (2005). Strategic Research Agenda for the European Construction Sector (in:Verbeek, Zevenbergen, 18:2008a).

Engel, H. (1997). The flood events of 1993/1994 and 1995 in the Rhine River basin, in: Destructive Water: Water-Caused Natural Disasters, their Abatement and Control, IAHS Publication no. 239.

Ernstberger, H. (2010). Wasserhaushalt und Grundwasser in Auen. Auen und Hochwasser, Forum für Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung, Ingolstadt: 31-41.

European Norm DIN EN 1991-1-7 Eurocode 1 (2010-12). http://www.baunormenlexikon.de/Normen/DIN/DIN%20EN%201991-1-7/98ccc70c-eb69-4343-9ff8-d953f738045e

Febvre, L. (2006, original 1935). The History of the Rhine. Campus publishers, New York Federal German Government (2008). Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie an den Klimawandel, Berlin.

Foster+Partners, Inner Harbour Masterplan Duisburg, (1991-2003), www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/0576/Default.aspx

Francioso, M. (2011). Umberto Ecco, in: The Encyclopedia of Literary and Cultural Theory Edited by: Ryan, M., Blackwell Reference Online www.blackwelreference.com

Functowicz and Ravetz (1993). Science for the post-normal age. Futures 25(7):739-755

Galbraith, J. (1973). Designing complex organizations, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley

Gelder, Van, P.H.A.J.M. (1999). Risks and safety of flood protection structures in the Netherlands, Proceedings of the Participation of Young Scientists in the Forum Engelberg on Risk and Safety of Technical Systems – in View of Profound Changes, pp.55-60, p.93.

Gersonius, B. Zevenbergen, C., Puyan, N., Billah, M. M. M. (2008). Efficiency of Private Flood Proofing of new Buildings – Adapted Redevelopment of a Floodplain in the Netherlands. Proceedings Resilient Building And Planning. UFM Dordrecht: 63-81.

Glaser, R. and Stangl, H. (2003). Historical floods in the Dutch Rhine Delta. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 3:605–613.

Gret-Regamey, A., Brunner, S. H. (2011). Adaptation to climate change through back-casting - a methodological framework for spatial planners, disP 184, ETH Zurich: 42-51.

Guden, J. (2004). Grenzüberschreitende Auswirkungen von Hochwasser, Überflutungen in Nordrhein-Westfalen und Gelderland, Deutsch-Niederländische Arbeitsgruppe Hochwasser.

Hardmeier, R., Herzog, J., Noseda, I., Schuhmacher, F. (2005). Basel: der Hafen muss weg! in: Werk, Bauen und Wohnen, 5:30-34.

Harms, D. (2006). Gesteuert oder ungesteuert? Der Hochwasserrückhalteraum Bellenkopf/Rappenwört. Umwelt+Verkehr, 3, BUND Regionalverband Mittlerer Oberrhein: , Karlsruhe:14-15.

Hartmann, T. (2011). Clumsy Floodplains - Responsive Land Policy for Extreme Floods. Ashgate Publishers, Surrey.

Hays, K. M. (2000). Smooth architecture and the de-differentiation of practice. Thesis, Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Bauhaus Universität Weimar, 4/5:110-115.

Heidecker, T., Kuhn, K. (2007). Hafen Chronik 1887-2007, Stadtwerke Mainz AG

HHerk, van S. (2008). Samenvatting Urban Flood Management Dordrecht, Dordrecht

Herzog, J., Hardmeier, R., Schuhmacher, F., Noseda, I. (2005). Basel: der Hafen muss weg! in: Werk, Bauen und Wohnen, 5:30-34

Hilte, A. Waals, H. (2008). De communicatie strategie voor buitendijkse gebieden, Waterschap Hollandse Delta, Ridderkerk

Hoek, van den J. (2008). The MXI (Mixed-use Index) as Tool for Urban Planning and Analysis, in: Cities and Corporations: Envisioning corporate real estate in the urban future, conference proceedings, TU
Delft+Berlage Institute

Homagk, P., Ludwig, K. (2009). Operationelle Flutungsvorhersage bei Deichversagen am Rhein in Baden- Württemberg, in: Wasserwirtschaft 1-2, Wiesbaden

Homagk, P. (2010). Hochwasserschutz am Oberrhein bis Worms im Wandel der letzten 200 Jahre. Wasserwirtschaft, 1-2:35-41

Hooijmeier, F. et al (2005). Atlas of Dutch Water Cities. SUN publishers, Amsterdam

Hoss, F., Jonkman, S.N., Maaskant, B. (2011). A Comprehenisve Assessment Of Multilayered Safety In Flood Risk Management – The Dordrecht Case Study. 5th International Conference on Flood Management (ICFM5), 27-29 September. Tokyo, Japan.

Hügin, G. (1980). Die Auenwälder des südlichen Oberrheintals und Ihre Veränderung durch den Rheinausbau, in: Colloques Phytosociologiques IX, Les forets alluviales, Strasbourg.

Hulst, van der, A. (2004). Watergevecht: dijkenbrekers versus dijkenbouwers, Groene Amsterdamer no.33.

Hurk, Van Den, B., Klein Tank, A., Lenderink, G., Van Ulden, A., Van Oldenborgh, G. J., Katsman, C., Van Den Brink, H., Keller, F., Bessembinder, J., Burgers, G., Komen, G., Hazeleger, W. And Drijfhout, S. (2006). KNMI Climate Change Scenarios 2006 for the Netherlands. KNMI Scientific Report WR 2006-01, De Bilt.

Hustede, R. (2011). Hochwasserschutz macht “Rappele” zur Hallig, p.13 in: Neueste Badische Nachrichten, No.261, Nov. 11.

ICPR (1999). Wirkungsabschätzung von Wasserrückhalt entlang des Rheins, ICPR, Koblenz.

ICPR (2001). Rhine Atlas ICPR, Koblenz.

ICPR (2001). Rhein 2020 - Programmm zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung des Rheins, ICPR, Koblenz.

ICPR (2005). Aktionsplan Hochwasser 1995-2005. report nr. 156.

Immink, I. (2005). Established and recent policy arrangements for river management in the Netherlands, an analysis of discourses, From Landscape Research to Landscape Planning: Aspects of Integration Education and Application.

IPCC (2001). Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report, Contribution of the Working Group I, II and III to the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

IPCC (2007a). Climate change 2007: Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Working group II, contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, UK.

IPCC (2007b). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Base, Working Group I, contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, UK.

IRMA (2004). Interactive Flood Management and Landscape Planning in River Systems IRMA Sponge project 4.

Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Random House.

Janson, A., Wolfrum, S. (2006). Kapazität: Spielraum und Prägnanz, in: Der Architekt, „Der unsichtbare Kern“, 5-6.

Jestaedt, A. (2011, not published). Historische Hochwasserereignisse in der Stadt Mainz, study commissioned by SWM, Mainz.

John-Koch, M. (ed.) (2009). Anpassungsstrategien an den Klimawandel, WISSENSCHAFTSFORUM, Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe.

Kabat, P., Van Vierssen, W., Veraart, J., Vellinga, P.and Aerts, J. (2005). Climate proofing the Netherlands. Nature, 438:283-84.

Kalweit, H. (editor) a. o. (1993). The Rhine under the influence of man- river engineering works, shipping, water management. CHR, Lelystad.

Kay, J. J. and Boyle, M. (2009). Self-Organizig, Holarchic, Open Systems (SOHOs). in: Waltner-Toews, D., Kay, J. J., Lister, N.-M. (ed.), The Ecosystem Aproach, Columbia University Press, New York.

Kay, J. J. (2009). An Introduction to Systems Thinking. in: Waltner-Toews, D., Kay, J. J., Lister, N.-M. (ed.), The Ecosystem Aproach, Columbia University Press, New York.

Kissel, K. Eine detaillierte Charakterisierung des Gartenfeldes, wie man es im 19. Jahrhundert bis zur Mitte der 1870er Jahre kannte: http://theodor.eichberger.info/humorist/werk/satire/mainz/stadterweiterung/index.html:

KNMI (2006). Klimaat in de 21e eeuw – vier scenario’s voor Nederland. KNMI, De Bilt.

Koolhaas, R. (1995). Generic City in: S,M,L,XL. Monacellli Press, Inc. New York: 1239-1264.

Koridon, L. Driessen, D., Schouten, M. (2007). Ruimtelijk Plan Dijkteruglegging Lent, Municipality Nijmegen.

Kretschmann, Splett, Gönner (2010). Planungsstand und Kostenentwicklung des Integrierten Rheinprogramms (IRP). Drucksache 14/5921. Landtag von Baden-Württemberg.

Koolhaas, R. (1995). Generic City in: S,M,L,XL. Monacellli Press, Inc. New York: 1239-1264.

Koridon, L. Driessen, D., Schouten, M. (2007). Ruimtelijk Plan Dijkteruglegging Lent, Municipality Nijmegen.

Kron,W. (2003). Hochwasser und Überschwemmungen: Bekämpfen oder akzeptieren? Schadensspiegel, 46 (3), 26-35.

Kuhn, T.S. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press.

Landesamt für Umwelt, Wasserwirtschaft und Gewerbeaufsicht Rheinland-Pfalz (LUWG), Hochwasserschutz in Rheinland-Pfalz, Ministerium für Umwelt, Forsten und Verbraucherschutz Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz, 2011.

LAWA Arge Bau (2010). Handlungsanleitung für den Einsatz rechtlicher und technischer Instrumente zum Hochwasserschutz in der Raumordnung, in der Bauleitplanung und bei der Zulassung von Einzelbauvorhaben, Fassung gemäß Beschlussfassung AR und AH.

Lefebvre, H. (1974, 1984 translated in English 1991). The Production of Space, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ligtvoet, W. , Knoop, J., Strengers, B., Bouwman, A. (2009). Flood protection in the Netherlands: framing longterm challenges and options for a climate-resilient delta, Netherlands Environment Assessment Agency, Bilthoven.

Lister, N.-M. (2010). Insurgent Ecologies: (Re)Claiming Ground in Landscape and Urbanism, in: Mostafavi, M. with Doherty, G. (ed.), Ecological Urbanism, Harvard University GSD, Lars Mueller publishers: 536-547.

Ludwig, K. (2008). Hochwassergefährdung Auf Der Freien Rheinstrecke Des Oberrheins. 6. Hochwasserschutzforum in der Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar, Speyer, www.ludwig-wawi.de

Ludwig, K. (2010). Blue Circles on the Lamppost. Living with Floods. Baumgaertner, M., Dieterle, J. (ed.). edition rheinkolleg: 42-43.

Mathur, A., da Cunha, D. (2001). Mississippi Floods: Designing a Shifting Landscape, Yale University Press, New Haven and London.

Maurer, T.,(2011). Rheinblick 2050 - zur Dynamik des Rheins, p.21-23, in :zukunft rhein Internationale Rheinkonferenz 2010, Regionale 2010 Agentur.

Menke, U. , Nijland, H. (2008). Nature Development and Flood Risk Management combined along the River Rhine –Experiences from a transnational Cooperation within the SDF-Project, 4th ECRR Conference on River Restoration, conference proceedings, Venice S. Servolo Island, 16-21 June: 330-338.

Mensink, J., Boeijenga, J. (2008). Vinex Atlas, 010 UItgeverij, Rotterdam.

Meulepas, G.-J. , et al (2007). ON 1605-19: Ontwerp of Hoofdlijnen Dijkteruglegging Lent, version 3.0.

Meyer, H. (1999). City and Port, International Books, Utrecht.

Meyer, H. (2006) Ontwerpen voor een monumentaal stadslandschap-De opgave van de stedebouwkundige discipline in de 21e eeuw, in: Chepos Magazine #4, Eindhoven.

Ministerium für Umwelt und Forsten Rheinland-Pfalz (1997). Umweltbericht, 1996, Mainz.

Ministerium für Umwelt, Försterei und Verbraucherschutz (2010). Bewertung des Hochwaserrrisikos in Rheinland-Pfalz, LUWG, Mainz

Ministerium für Umwelt, Forsten, Verbraucherschutz Rheinland-Pfalz (2011). Hochwasserschutz in Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz.

Ministerium für Umwelt und Naturschutz, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (MUNLV) (2009). Umweltbericht Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf.

Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, directoraatgeneraal Water (2008). Nederland leeft med water, waterwet in het kort.pdf

Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat (2005). Tussenbesluit Rampenbeheersingsstrategie overstromingen Rijn en Maas.

Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management (V&W) in cooperation with the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature.

Management and Food Quality (LNV) (2006). Spatial Planning Key Decision ‘Room for the River’.

MNP (2005). The effects of climate change in the Nederlands. MNP Rapportnr. 773001037. Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau, Bilthoven.

Most, van der, H. and Wehrung, M. (2005). Dealing with Uncertainty in Flood Risk Assessment of Dike Rings in the Netherlands in: Natural Hazards 36, Springer, New York: 191–206.

MULRV Hessen (2007). Landesaktionsplan Hochwasserschutz Hessen. Hessisches Ministerium für Umwelt, ländlichen Raum und Verbraucherschutz.

Municipality Dordrecht (2009). Masterplan Stadswerven - New Stedelijkheid voor Dordrecht.

Municipality Nijmegen (2007). Spatial Plan Dijkteruglegging Lent.

MVRDV Architects and Urbanists (2011). 3LAND Entwicklungsvision / Vision de Développement Netherlands Commission for Environmental IMpact Assessment (2009). Veessen-Wapenveld high-water channel - Recommendations for Terms of Reference for the Environmental Impact Assessment report. report no. 2190-35.

Nillesen, A.-L., Singelenberg, J. (2010). Amphibious Housing in the Netherlands, NAi Publishers Rotterdam.

Niessen, J. (1956). Geschichtlicher Handatlas der deutschen Länder am Rhein. J.P. Bachem Verlag, Köln.

Nijhoff, A, foreword in: Herk, van, S. (2008). Samenvatting Urban Flood Management Dordrecht.

Pelt van, M., Dekker, T., Neefjes, P., Bujis, S. (2011, not published). Probleemanalyse Rijn-Maasdelta.

Os van, A., Hooijer, A., Klijn, F., Kwadijk, J., Pedroli, B. (2002). Towards sustainable Flood Risk Management in the Rhine and Meuse River Basins, Proceedings Final Working Conference IRMA SPONGE.

Paul, R. (2010). From Object line to Vector field - the social instrument. Infrastrukturbanismus, conference proceedings. TU Munich Feb 4-5.

Pelt van, M., Dekker, T., Neefjes, P., Bujis, S. (concept 2011, forthcoming). Probleemanalyse Rijn-Maasdelta.

Petrow, T., Thieke, A. H., Kreibich, H., Bahlburg, C. H. and Merz, B. (2006). Improvements in Flood Alleviation in Germany: Lessons learned from the Elbe Flood in August 2002. Environmental Management, 38 (5), 717-732.

Pfarr, U. et al (ed.) (1996), Rahmenkonzept des Landes Baden-Württemberg zur Umsetzung des Integrierten Rheinprogramms, Materialien zum IRP, Band 7, Oberhreinagentur, Lahr.

Pfarr, U. (2010). Integriertes Rheinprogramm Baden-Württemberg: Umweltverträglicher Hochwasserschutz als Chance für die Auen am Oberrhein, in: Auen und Hochwasser, Forum für Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung, 27.10, Ingolstadt: 81-93.

Pottgiesser, T., Halle, M., Cargill, A. (2004). Entwicklung einer (Abschnitts-)Typologie für den natürlichen Rheinstrom, ICPR report no. 147d, Koblenz.

Project Organization: Room for the River. (2006) Planologische Kernbesliessing Ruimte voor de Rivier PKB.

Q-Team+Programmadirectie Ruimte voor de Rivier (2009). Jaarverslag 2008 Kwaliteitsteam Ruimte voor de Rivier, Utrecht.

Rees, W.E. (1995). Achieving sustainability, reform or transformation. Journal of Planning Literature 9:343-361.

Rees, W. E. (2003). Understanding Urban Ecosystems: An Ecological Economics Perspective. Understanding Urban Ecosystems, A.R. Berkowitz, C.H. Nilon, k.S. Hollweg, Springer Verlag, New York: 115-136.

Redeker, C. (ed.) (forthcoming), Project Development Guide Zollhafen, Stadtwerke Mainz AG.

Regierungspräsidium Karlsruhe, Abt 5 (2007). Rückhalteraum Bellenkopf/Rappenwört, -Variantenauswahl-Ergebnis und Erläuterungen, Karlsruhe.

Regierungspräsidium Karlsruhe, Abt.5, Referat 53.1 (2008). Hochwasser-Rückhalteraum Bellenkopf/Rappenwört. RPK Karlsruhe.

Regierungspräsidium Karlsruhe, Abteilung Umwelt (2011) Polder Bellenkopf / Rappenwört - Gesamterläuterungsbericht.

Regierungspräsidium Karlsruhe (2011). Hochwasserrückhalteraum “Bellenkopf/Rappenwört”.

Regierungspräsidium beantragt Planfeststellungsverfahrenzum Bau und Betrieb des neuen Polders; Informationsveranstaltungen geplant, press information, July 27.

Rijkswaterstaat (n.i.). Nota Ruimte, National Spatial Strategy - Creating Space for Development. Summary http://english.verkeerenwaterstaat.nl/english/Images/engelsesamenvattingnotaruimte_tcm249-301728.pdf

Rutschmann, P., Skublics, D. (2010). Hochwasserdynamik in Auen, in: Auen und Hochwasser, Forum für Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung, 27.10, Ingolstadt: 17-29.

RWS, Municipality Nijmegen, Polderdistrict Betuwe, Province Gelderland (2000). De Flessenhals bij Nijmegen - Quick Scan.

RWS (2005). Projectnota / MER Dijkteruglegging Lent.

Rossow, W. (1991, originally 1954) Die Landschaft muss Gesetz werden. Daldrop-Weidmann, Monika, DVA, München: 45-54.

Schüler, N. (2008 not published) . Begründung zur Änderung Nr. 25 des Flächennutzungsplans im Bereich des Bebauungsplanentwurfes “Neues Stadtquartier Zoll-und Binnenhafens Mainz (N84)” und zum Bebauungsplanentwurf “Neues Stadtquartier Zoll-und Binnenhafens Mainz (N84)”, Mainz Municipality, not published.

Shane, G. (2003). The Emergence of Landscape Urbanism, Harvard Design Magazine Number 19:1-8.

Shannon, K. (2008). Water Urbanisms. NAi publishers, Rotterdam.

Siedentrop, S. et al (2009). Ergebnisse des Staatenvergleichs, in: Forschungen Heft 139, Einflussfaktoren der Neuinanspruchnahme von Flächen, Allgemeine Ressortforschung, BMVBS, Bonn.

Sieferle, R.-P. (2006). Das Ende der Fläche. Umwelthistorische Forschungen, Band 2. Böhlau, Köln.

Sieweke, J. (2010). Father Rhine: On Rivers and riparians, in: D. Valentien (ed.), Return of landscape, Jovis, Berlin: 80-91.

Sijmons, D. (2009). Room for the River. Topos Magazine, Water Resource and Threat, 68, Callwey Publishers, Munich: 61-68.

Solmsdorf, A. and H.(1975). Schutzwürdige Bereiche im Rheintal, Beiträge zur Rheinkunde, no.27.

Splett, G., Rastätter, R. (2010). Planungen für Integriertes Rheinprogramm verzögern sich weiter, Pressemitteilung.

Splett, G. a. o. (2009). Effektiver und naturnaher Hochwasserschutz. Drucksache 14 / 4194. Landtag von Baden-Württemberg..

Splett, G., Rastätter, R. et al (2010). Planungen für Integriertes Rheinprogramm verzögern sich weiter. Press release March 13. Landtag Baden-Württemberg.

Stadsregio Arnhem Nijmegen (2007). Regionaal Plan 2005-2020. Nijmegen, Amsterdam.

Stadtplanungsamt Mainz (1997). Rheinufer – Geschichte – Bestand – Analyse, Municipality Mainz.

Steinberg, M. (2012). Ideen Formen, nicht Objekte. Süddeutsche Zeitung, Jan. 2.

Stive, M., Vrijling, H. (2011). Draining, Dredging, Reclaiming, in: Delta Urbanism, APA Planners Press:21-44.

Stokmann, A. (2010). Flusslandschaften der Zukunft attraktiv gestalten. in: Baumgaertner, M., Dieterle, J., (ed.). Living with Floods. edition rheinkolleg: 126-127.

Stone, K. Beckers, J. Penailillo, R. (2008). Water specific issues for Urban Flood Management, UFM Dordrecht.

Stumpe, J. (2009). National Water Plan 2009-2015 – a Summary, Dutch Central Government.

Sydro Consult (2009). Erstellung einer 2D Strömungsberechnung des neu zu erschließenden Geländes „Zollhafen“ für die Stadtwerke Mainz AG.
Szöllösi-Nagy, A. & Zevenbergen, C., Urban Flood Management, A.A. Balkema Publishers, 2005.

TeBrake, W. (1985). Medieval Frontier: Culture and Ecology in Rijnland, A&M University Press, Texas.

Theis, W. (2010). Five Guding principles to Flood Resilience. FloodResilienCity Paris Conference. Ministry for the Environment, Forestry and Consumer Protection Rhineland-Palatinate, Water Resources Management, Mainz.

Terra Incognita, Bureau Stroming, SAB, Alterra (2009). Handrijking Ruimtelijke Kwaliteit voor de Waal, Programmadirectie Ruimte voor de Rivier.

Transport and Water Management Inspectorate (2006). Assessment of primary flood defences in The Netherlands National Report 2006, Lelystad.

van de Ven, G.P., Driessen, A.M.A.D. (1995). Nothing is durable....The History of the river floods in the Netherlands.

Veen, van de, G.-P (1993, 2004). Man-made Lowlands, History of water management and land reclamation in the Netherlands. Matrijs, Utrecht.

Veerbeek, W. , Zevenbergen, C. (2008a). Deconstructing Urban Flood Damages: Combining modalities into a damage model using a high level of detail. Resilient Building and Planning, Proceedings UFM Dordrecht: 15-47.

Veerbeek, W. Zevenbergen, C. (2008b). UFM Dordrecht: Flood Damage Estimates in the Face of New Urban Development. Proceedings Resilient Building And Planning. UFM Dordrecht: 48-62.

Veerbeek,W., Gersonius, B., Zevenbergen, C., Puyan, N., Billah, M. M. M., Fransen, R. (2008). Efficiency of Private Flood Proofing of New Buildings – Adapted Redevelopment of a Floodplain in the Netherlands, in: Proceedings Workpackage 03 Resilient Building And Planning, UFM Dordrecht: 63-81.

Vergne, J.-P, Durand, R. (2010). The Missing Link Between the Theory and Empirics of Path Dependence: Conceptual Clarification, Testability Issue, and MEthodological Implications. Journal of Management Studies 47:4: 736-759.

Vogt, Kaufmann, Gönner (2007). Variantenentscheidung zum Bau des Polders Bellenkopf/Rappenwört – Abschied vom Integrierten Rheinprogramm. Landtag von Baden-Württemberg, Drucksache 14 / 1326.

Voigt, M. (2005). Hochwassermanagement und räumliche Planung. in: Jüpner, R. (ed.) Hochwassermanagement. Shaker Verlag, Magdeburg: 97-117.

Walker, B., Holling, C.S., Carpenter, S.R. , Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 9(2), 5.

Wall, R. (2004), Ein Archipel als Port City Rotterdam, Überleben an Strömen, Rheinkolleg:8-11.

Webler, H. (forthcoming). Flood Risk Management Guide Zollhafen, Stadtwerke Mainz AG.

Wertmann, C. (2010). Squatting on Infrastructure, in: Infrastruktururbanismus, conference proceedings, TU Munich.

Wiedemann, T. ( 2009, forthcoming). Hochwasserkatastrophen sind unvermeidbar, in: Baumgaertner, M. et al, Der Rhein - ein Handbuch, Concept. Rheinkolleg e.V., Speyer

Wiktorin, D., Blenck, J., Nipper, J. (2001). Köln, Der historisch-topographische Atlas. Emons, Köln

WL Delft | Hydraulics (2007a). Huidige en toekomstige overstromingsscenario’s in Nederland in een veranderend klimaat.

WL Delft | Hydraulics, TNO & GeoDelft (2007b). Effecten van extreme zeespiegelstijging op de Nederlandse waterhuishouding.

Yin, R.K. (2003). Case Study Research Design and methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications, Inc.
How to Cite
REDEKER, Cornelia. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI): German and Dutch Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies. A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment, [S.l.], n. 4, p. 1-396, feb. 2018. ISSN 2214-7233. Available at: <https://journals.library.tudelft.nl/index.php/abe/article/view/2001>. Date accessed: 18 feb. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.7480/abe.2018.4.