Activerende Gevels: Naar gedrag beïnvloedende gebouwen
As a result of the large amounts of CO2 emissions the built environment produces, it contributes immensely to climate change. Within the strategies developed to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions, getting buildings to an energy-neutral level is one of the main priorities. The blueprint for this altered energy-efficient building now seems to be ready: the heavily insulated outer shells of buildings have decreased the demand for energy and the necessary coolness and warmth are induced using low-temperature systems.
Whether these changes are enough remains to be seen.
The actual, measured energy efficiency of these environmentally friendly buildings turns out to be lower than their theoretical efficiency; they use more energy than was expected up front. This difference can partly be attributed to the increased complexity of and sensitivity to improper use of these buildings. Users simply do not understand them well enough. Improper handling then turns into energy loss. Rebound effects also play a role in the lower levels of energy saving. The rebound effect states that as a result of higher efficiency, energy will relatively be cheaper. Lower energy bills will lead to a more increased use of warming and cooling, or to extra activities – whether or not polluting – outside the building.
The rebound effects make clear that environmentally friendly buildings do not automatically make their users less polluting; the energy efficiency of the building does not change people’s behaviour. One of the results of a survey that was conducted among 414 employees in five, energy efficient, and five more older, and less energy efficient office buildings in The Netherlands subscribes this. The environmental self-identity - which is regarded as the extent to which people perceive themselves to be a person whose actions are environmentally friendly – hardly differs from the office building users in both types of buildings (M = 4.977, SE = .069 vs. M = 5.052, SE = .075).
In order to reduce the rebound effects behaviour has to become more environmentally friendly. Changing behaviour sustainably is hard – because behaviour is based on routines - but it is not impossible.
Behaviour is influenced by values that are stable, transsituational and fairly abstract. When the contextual situation changes, these values and the (habitual) behaviour inherent to that specific situation can be re-evaluated. This implicates that in buildings, new contexts should be created: building should change in a more drastic and radical way than the evolutionary improvements made so far. Besides their energy efficiency the new energy efficient building differs little from their energy consuming predecessors.
The behaviour can also be changed by strengthen the environmental self-identity of people. Identity is the label with which somebody describes himself and it has a somewhat more flexible character than values have. For example, past behaviour is important for formulating one’s self-identity. It is seen as a cue to future behaviour. When somebody has shown environmentally friendly behaviour in the past, he is more likely to behave so in the future.
Changes in the context and ways to strengthen the environmental self-identity match the philosophy of among others Albert Borgmann who states that comfort, and the energy needed for it, will be more valuable when a user is more actively engaged in creating it. By being actively involved in sustainably creating an as ‘comfortable’ perceived indoor climate, people would feel they are behaving environmentally friendly, and having an environmental self-identity. Further, users would get the idea that they could act as a co-designer of that climate, as a result of which they would be more forgiving to it as well.
The increased environmental awareness resulting from this would then be the societal gain of a building that seduces its users to a more active involvement in creating the indoor climate. But why would users want to be seduced? In part, this could be attributed to the wish to control one’s living environment. Humans are comfort-seeking beings and when faced with discomfort, will find ways to remove that discomfort. Further, the ‘Theory of Planned Behaviour’ states that before behaviour is being performed, one will evaluate what that behaviour will bring as a return. In other words: will the behaviour lead to a positive or negative evaluation? It is obvious that the desired outcome is related to the professed values. So to be attractive to a diverse public, an activating building should appeal to different values.
Improving or sparing the environment alone is not enough however. Saving energy, having financial advantages, having greater control and an improved image can also play a role when choosing the systems, and the thereof arising behaviour.
This led to the following research question:
What effects does a façade system that activates its users have on their perception of thermal comfort, their satisfaction with the indoor climate, the use of energy and their environmental awareness?
Using an on the basis of this question designed activating, flexible, and adaptive façade (AfaF), a new context will be created in a test situation. Starting point is that however radical the facade to this end has to be, at the same time, one must be able to use it in an almost intuitive manner. In this way, the chances of making mistakes while using it will be minimized, and the chances to an actual and intensive use will be increased. When designing and materializing AfaF, the association with clothing is made. Just as when using clothes, extra layers of cloth are applied or removed when the situation inside or outside calls for it.
To test whether users actually see through this association, but also whether or not the increased control leads to an increased perception of thermal comfort and satisfaction with the indoor climate, a test pavilion was created. The herein assembled AfaF consisted of four layers: a water and wind proof layer, two insulating layers, and a sun-shielding layer with a low emission coefficient. One hundred and eighty one students and employees of the Hogeschool van Amsterdam, University of Applied Sciences (HvA) have participated in the tests; some of them were allowed to operate the AfaF, others were not.
The test results show that the test subjects with control over the AfaF saw it as an effective device to control the indoor climate. Next to effectiveness, one of the starting points in designing the AfaF was that it could be controlled intuitively. The time it cost the test subjects to manoeuvre the façade into the right configuration was thereby taken as a criterion. In the test unit with control over the AfaF, at the start of the test, the AfaF was purposely suspended in the wrong away, considering the outside conditions. The test subjects were then asked to re-configure the AfaF. On average, it cost them less than 5 seconds, which is lower than the ‘norm’. Furthermore, they strongly perceived the indoor climate they created to be a personal achievement.
Having control, however, seems to play out less strongly in experiencing comfort and satisfaction with the indoor climate. Only operating the AfaF a second time had a significant influence on the contentment with the indoor climate (F(1.85) = 8.168; p < .05; ƞ2 = .088). This contradicts other research that shows that control increases satisfaction. When prevailing temperatures are related to the perception of comfort and satisfaction with the indoor climate, however, both comfort and contentment turn out to score higher than was to be expected. Of the test subjects having control over the AfaF, 17% thought it was either too warm or too cold – which was lower than the test subjects without control scored (19.9%). The average perception of comfort in the test unit with control was slightly more positive than that in the test unit without control (M = 1.7; M = 1.8). Remarkable, however, is the low percentage of test subjects with control that were dissatisfied: 10.6%. And that even though the test pavilion did not have a conditioned indoor climate, and the indoor climate fluctuated with outside conditions that were rather cold. The use of a heater and a lamp, which were lined up in the test units, also shows that having control can have a positive influence on energy use. A significant relation was found between the re-operation of the AfaF and the turning off of the lamp (B = 1.590, SE = .512, p < .05, Exp (B) 4.904; R2 = .08). Further, the percentage of test subjects that turned on the stove in the unit with control was lower than the percentage of test subjects turning on the stove in the unit without control, respectively 25 to 34.7%. During these tests, the unit with control had a slightly less favourable climate then the unit without control. In 9 out of the 12 cases in which the heater was turned on, all options of using the AfaG to influence the indoor climate were exhausted. This form of energy saving can be regarded as ‘psychological’ energy saving – it feels more comfortable indoors than the temperatures actually justify. Using adaptive façades can, however, also lead to real energy saving. To determine how much can be saved, the software program VABI-elements was used to simulate a educational unit with the same dimensions and the same composition of the façade as the actual, physical test pavilion at the HvA. In the tests, cloths with varying thermal resistance, different masses and different emission coefficients were alternated. Starting from the layers with varying thermal resistance (wherein layers of Rc’s of 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5; 4.5; 6, and 8m2K/W were simulated with), a gain of 16.88% can be made when compared with a static façade with an RC of 8 m2K/W. To accomplish this, the user has to perform four acts only on a yearly basis: he must re-configure the façade cloths four times. When more acts are accepted, energy savings can go up to 20%. When the mass is made adaptive as well, 25% less energy is needed to realise a B-class indoor climate.
Further to these savings for the user – which will be regarded as an important motivation to start operating the façade - a broader societal goal was at the basis of the development of AfaF.
By operating the façade, users must get the idea that they are acting environmentally friendly, and this feeling must lead to a more environmentally friendly attitude. Not using the heater as much, and turning off the lamp in the unit with control over the AfaF points out that having control encourages environmentally friendly behaviour. To examine whether or not this behaviour would also extend to outside the building, the test subjects were asked to choose from two types of products: cheap, non-environmentally friendly products or 10% more expensive, but environmentally friendly products. Significant correlations were found between the environmental self-identity and the choice for environmentally friendly products with both students and non-students, the relationship between having control, and the chosen products was not found.
Having control has had a big influence on choosing a real reward, however. The goal for this last test was that ticking the box for, and thus accepting ‘a loss’ of 10% by choosing an environmentally friendly product, was rather noncommittal. The test subjects did not really have to pay for the products, after all. So, a month after the tests took place, a thank-you note was sent to all participants. Those that partook in the survey to discover the difference in perceived comfort, contentment with the indoor climate and the environmentally oriented self-identity of users of sustainable, and of older, less sustainable office buildings, received this e-mail as well. It stated that among all participants, four vouchers would be raffled. They were asked to make clear for what reward they would want to be considered: a Mediamarkt gift voucher, a travel voucher, a fair-trade basket, or an Oxfam Novib voucher.
Of all students, 87.4% chose a hedonistic reward – the Mediamarkt gift voucher, and the travel voucher. For students, €50 is a lot of money and their choice fits within the low cost theory that states that as soon as costs are perceived to be too high, sustainable behaviour will be abandoned. The difference between having control and not having control while choosing their reward was therefore scarcely found.
With non-students, however, significant differences were found between test subjects with and without control. The average amount of hedonistic vouchers chosen by nonstudents that were tested in the unit with control over the AfaF was considerably lower (16.7%) than the amount chosen by non-students in the unit without control (52.7%).
When the results are compared with those of HvA employees that did not participate in the tests, but did participate in the survey, it shows that operating the AfaF can have a positive influence on environmentally friendly behaviour. Of the HvA employees that were questioned, 65% chose a hedonistic Mediamarkt voucher and that is more than the non-students that had control in the test unit.
Thus, this research has determined and identified some forms of gains that could lead to the use of AfaF. To be able to define these gains as radical, however, the principles behind the activating, flexible and adaptive façade, the AfaF, eventually need to be embraced as well, and this can hardly be measured. What can be determined, however, is whether or not there is enough architectural leeway in the starting points of the AfaF to be able to give it architectural expression. Only then will the AfaF be interesting for architects. To examine this, a workshop was organized for seven architects who work at different Dutch architectural firms, and were asked to design an AfaF with an architectural character. The results show a large variety in adaptive and flexible possibilities of the façade, both in ways in which the users can be activated and in architectural expression that can be traced back to a very specific signature.
This research showed that an activating façade can initiate environmentally friendlier behaviour, and can be the first step towards a genuine reform of the built environment.
Abrahamse, W., Steg, L., Vlek, C., & Rothengatter, T. (2007). The effect of tailored information, goal setting, and tailored feedback on household energy use, energyrelated behaviors, and behavioral antecedents. Journal of environmental psychology, 27(4), 265-276.
Achterhuis, H. (1995). De moralisering van apparaten. Socialisme en democratie, 52(1), 3-18. Achterhuis, H. (1996). Samenleving moet leren om moderne techniek te moraliseren. NRC 23 april. Achterhuis, H (2013). Techniek redt de moral. Dagblad Trouw 23 maart 2013.
Ackerly, K., Baker, L., & Brager, G. (2011). Window Use in Mixed-Mode Buildings: A Literature Review. Adger, W.N., Dessai, S., Goulden, M., Hulme, M. Lorenzoni, I., Nelson, D.R., Naess, L.O., Wolf, J. & Wreford, A.
(2009). Are There Social Limits to adaptation to Climate Change. Climatic Change April 2009, Volume 93,Issue 3. 335-354
Adger, W.N. & Barnett, J. (2009). Four reasons for concern about adaptation to climate change. Environment and Planning A 2009, volume 41. 2800-2805.
Adler, N. E., Epel, E. S., Castellazzo, G. & Ickovics, J. R. (2000). Relationship of subjective and objective social status with psychological and physiological functioning: Preliminary data in healthy white women. Health Psychology, 19(6), 586–592.
Agentschap NL. (2013). Kantoren gebouwd voor de toekomst. De NESK-kantoren duurzaam opgeleverd.Utrecht.
Agentschap NL. (2013). Monitor energiebesparing gebouwde omgeving 2012.
Ahuja, G. & Lampert, C. M.. (2001). Entrepreneurship in the Large Corporation: A Longitudinal Study of How Established Firms Create Breakthrough Inventions. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6/7), 521–543.
Ahuvia, A.C. (2005).Beyond the Extended Self: Loved Objects and Consumers’ Identity Narratives. Journal of Consumer Research. Vol. 32. 171-184.
Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory op planned behavior. In: J. Kuhl & J. Beckman (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior, p. 11-39. Berlijn: Springer-Verlag.
Ajzen, I. (1991). A theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50 (p. 179-211).
Ajzen, I. (1996). The directive influence of attitudes on behavior. In: P. M. Gollwitzer & J.A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking motivation and cognition to behavior. 385–403. New York: Guilford Press.
Ajzen, I. (2001). Nature and Operation of Attitudes. Annual Review of Psychology 52, pp. 27–58.
Al-Homoud, M. S. (2005). Performance characteristics and practical applications of common building thermal insulation materials. Building and environment, 40(3), 353-366.
Anderson, M. L. (2003). Embodied cognition: A field guide. Artificial intelligence, 149(1), 91-130.
Anderson, W., White, V., & Finney, A. (2012). Coping with low incomes and cold homes. Energy Policy, 49, 4052.
Andreoni, J. (1990). Impure Altruism and Donations to Public Goods: A Theory of Warm-Glow Giving. The Economic Journal, Vol. 100, No. 401.464-477.
Anshuman, S. (2005). Responsiveness and Social Expression; Seeking Human Embodiment in Intelligent Façades, ACADIA, pp. 12-23.
Arens, E., Humphreys, M.A., de Dear, R. & Zhang, H. (2010). Are ‘Class A’ temperature requirements realistic or desirable? Building and Environment, 45, 4–10.
Aries, M.B.C. & Bluyssen, P.M. 2009. Climate change consequences for the indoor environment. HERON Vol. 54 (2009) No. 1.
Armstrong, F. (2009). The Age of Stupid. Why didn’t we save ourselves, when we had the change. Spanner Films. Arndt, J., Solomon, S., Kasser, T. & Sheldon, K.M. (2004). The Urge to Splurge: A Terror Management Account of Materialism and Consumer Behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 14(3). 198–212.
Arnold, A. G., & Mettau, P. (2006). Action facilitation and desired behavior. In: Verbeek, P.P. & Slob, A. (eds). User Behavior and Technology Development: Shaping Sustainable Relations between Consumers and Technology. Springer.
Aronoff, S. & Kaplan, A. (1995). Total Workplace Performance: Rethinking the Office Environment. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2 (12). 144-145.
Asdrubali, F., D’Alessandro, F., & Schiavoni, S. (2015). A review of unconventional sustainable building insulation materials. Sustainable Materials and Technologies, 4, 1-17.
Asquith, L. & Vellinga, M. (Eds.). (2006). Vernacular architecture in the 21st century: Theory, education and practice. Taylor & Francis.
Atwood, A. (2003). Oryx en Crake. Bakker.
Auliciems, A. (1981). Towards a psycho-physiological model of thermal perception International Journal of Biometeorology 25:2 109-22
Axsen, J. & Kurani, K.S., (2013). Developing sustainability-oriented values: Insights from households in a trial of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Global Environmental Change 23. 70–80.
Aydin, E., Brounen, D., & Kok, N. (2013). The Rebound Effect in Residential Heating.
Azzopardi, B., & Mutale, J. (2010). Life cycle analysis for future photovoltaic systems using hybrid solar cells. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(3), 1130-1134.
Backlund, S., Gyllenswärd, M., Gustafsson, A., Ilstedt Hjelm, S., Mazé, R., & Redström, J.(2007). Static! The aesthetics of energy in everyday things. In: Proceedings of Design Research Society Wonderground International Conference 2006.
Baetens, R., Jelle, B. P., & Gustavsen, A. (2011). Aerogel insulation for building applications: a state-of-the-art review. Energy and Buildings, 43(4), 761-769.
Baker, N. (2000). We are all outdoor animals. Architecture City Environment, Proceedings of PLEA, 2000, 553555.
Baker, P. T. (1984). The adaptive limits of human populations. Man, 1-14.
Balaras, C. A. (1996). The role of thermal mass on the cooling load of buildings. An overview of computational methods. Energy and Buildings,24(1), 1-10.
Ballagh, K. O. (2010). Adapting simple prediction methods to sound transmission of lightweight foam cored panels. Building Acoustics, 17(4), 269-275.
Bamberg, S. & Möser, G. (2007). Twenty years after Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera: A new meta-analysis of psycho-social determinants of pro-environmental behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology 27. 14–25
Banham, R. (1980). Theory and design in the first machine age. MIT Press.
Banham, R. (1984) The architecture of the well-tempered environment. University of Chicago Press. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2),
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and Functioning. Educational Psychologist Volume 28, Issue 2. 117-148.
Bargh, J.A. Lee-Chai, A. Barndollar, K., Gollwitzer, P.M. & Trötschel, R. (2001). The Automated Will: Nonconscious Activation and Pursuit of Behavioral Goals. J Pers Soc Psychol. December ; 81(6): 1014–1027.
Barr, S. (2003) Strategies for sustainability: citizens and responsible environmental behaviour, Area, Vol. 35, No. 3. 227-240.
Bastick, T. (1982). Intuition: How we Think and Act. Chichester: John Wileyand Sons. Bauman, Z. (2001). Consuming Life. Journal of Consumer Culture. Vol 1(1). 9–29.
Baumeister, R.F. (2002). Yielding to Temptation: Self-Control Failure, Impulsive Purchasing, and Consumer Behavior. Journal of Consumer Research. Vol. 28. March. 670-676.
Baumeister, R.F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M. & Tice, D.M. (1998). Ego Depletion: Is the Active Self a Limited Resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 74.No. 5, 1252-1265.
Beckers, T.A.M., Harkink, E.W.F.P.M., Van Ingen, E.J., Lampert, M.A., Van der Lelij, B. & Van Ossenbruggen, R. (2004). Maatschappelijke waardering van duurzame ontwikkeling. Achtergrondrapport bij de duurzaamheidsverkenning. Bilthoven: Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (rivmrapport 500013007/2004).
Bedford, T (1936). The warmth factor in comfort at work: MRC Industrial Health Board Report No 76 HMSO. Behera, B. K. & Mishra, R. (2007). Comfort properties of non-conventional light weight worsted suiting fabrics. Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research, 32(1), 72-79.
Belk, R.W. (1985). Materialism: Trait Aspects of Living in the Material World. Journal of Consumer Research.Vol. 12. 265-280.
Belk, R. W. (1988). Possessions and the extended self. Journal of consumer research, 15(2), 139-168. Belk, R., Mayer, R. & Bahn, K. (1982). ‘The eye of the beholder: Individual differences in perceptions of consumption symbolism’, Advances in Consumer Research, 9, 523–530.
Bem, D. J. (1972). Self-perception theory. In: L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental social psychology,. 1-62,. New York: Academic Press.
Ben-Bassat, T., Meyer, J. & Tractinsky, N. (2006). Economic and subjective measures of the perceived value of aesthetics and usability. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 13(2), 210-234.
Benesch, C., Frey, B.S. & Stutzer, A. (2010). TV Channels, Self-control and Happiness. The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy Vol. 10(1), Article 86 (2010).
Berg, N. & Gigerenzer, G. (2007). Psychology implies paternalism? Bounded rationality may reduce the rationale to regulate risk-taking. Soc Choice Welfare 28. 337-359.
Berger, J. & Heath, C. (2007). Where Consumers Diverge from Others: Identity Signaling and Product Domains. Journal of Consumer Research.Vol. 34. 121-134.
Bhamra, T., Lilley, D., & Tang, T. (2008). Sustainable use: changing consumer behaviour through product design. Changing the Change: Design Visions, Proposals and Tools, Turin, 2008, Proceedings.
Bhat, I. K., & Prakash, R. (2009). LCA of renewable energy for electricity generation systems—a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,13(5), 1067-1073.
Bhattacharjee, D., & Kothari, V. K. (2008). Measurement of Thermal Resistance of Woven Fabrics in Natural and Forced Convections. Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, 12(2), 39-49.
Bhattacharjee, D., & Kothari, V. K. (2009). Heat transfer through woven textiles. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52(7), 2155-2160.
Biddle, B. J., Bank, B. J. & Slavings, R. L. (1987). Norms, preferences, identities and retention decisions. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50, 322–337.
Bilgen, S. (2014). Structure and environmental impact of global energy consumption.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 38. 890–902.
Binswanger, M. (2001). Technological progress and sustainable development: what about the rebound effect?. Ecological economics, 36(1), 119-132.
Blackler, A., Popovic, V., & Mahar, D. (2003). The nature of intuitive use of products: an experimental approach. Design Studies, 24(6), 491-506.
Blackler, A., Popovic, V., & Mahar, D. (2010). Investigating users’ intuitive interaction with complex artefacts. Applied ergonomics, 41(1), 72-92.
Blevis, E. (2007). Sustainable Interaction Design: Invention & Disposal, Renewal & Reuse. CHI’07. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 501-513.
Bloemendal, M., Olsthoorn, T., & Boons, F. (2014). How to achieve optimal and sustainable use of the subsurface for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage. Energy Policy, 66, 104-114.
Bluyssen, P. M. (2009). The Indoor Environment Handbook: How to make buildings healthy and comfortable. Routledge.
Bockelandt, T. & De Mûelenaere, E. (2007). Analyse van energieprestatie en comfortniveau in rust-en verzorgingstehuizen. Masterscriptie. Universiteit Gent.
Boerstra, A.C., Loomans, M.G.L.C. & Hensen, J.L.M. (2014). Personal control over indoor climate and productivity. Conference Paper : Proceedings of Indoor Air 2014, 7-12 July 2014, Hongkong, China. 1-8.
Boerstra, A.C., Van Hoof, J. & Van Weele, A.M. (2014a). A new hybrid thermal comfort guideline for the Netherlands (ISSO 74: 2014). Proceedings of 8th Windsor Conference: Counting the cost of comfort in a changing world. Cumberland Lodge, Windsor, UK. 10-13 April 2014. London: Network for Comfort and Energy Use in Buildings.
Boerstra, A.C., Van Hoof, J. & Van Weele, A.M. (2015). A new hybrid thermal comfort guideline for the Netherlands: Background and Developments. Architectural Science Review. Vol. 58, No. 1, 24–34.
Bolderdijk, J.W., Steg, L., Geller, E.S., Lehman, P.K. & Postmes, T. (2012).Comparing the effectiveness of monetary versus moral motives in environmental campaigning. 9 December 2012. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1767.
Bong, J. (2013) Snowpiercer. Moho Film.
Boomkens, R. (1989). Modernisme, catastrophe en openbaarheid. Oase 24. 28-39.
Bord, R.J., O’Connor, R.E. & Fischer, A.(2000).In what sense does the public need to understand global climate change? Public Underst. Sci. 9. 205–218.
Bordass, B. (2004). Energy performance of non-domestic buildings: closing the credibility gap. In in Proceedings of the 2004 Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings Conference.
Bordass, W., Leaman, A. & Willis, S. (1994). Control strategies for building services: the role of the user. BRE conference Buildings and the environment, May.
Borgmann, A. 1984. Technology and the Character of Contemporary Life: A Philosophical Inquiry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Boundy, D. (2004). When money is the drug. In: Lane Benson A, editor. I shop, therefore I am: compulsive buying and the search for self. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
Brager, G., Paliaga G. & De Dear, R. (2004). Operable windows, Personal Control and Occupant Comfort.
ASHRAE Transactions 4695, RP-1161.
Brager, G., Zhang, H. & Arens, E. (2015). Evolving opportunities for providing thermal comfort. Building Research and Information, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1–14.
Brand, S. (1994). How buildings learn: What happens after they’re built. Penguin.
Brekke, K.A. & Johansson-Stenman, O. (2008). The Behavioural Economics of Climate Change. School of business, economics and law, University of Gothenburg.
Brey, P. (2006). Ethical Aspects of Behavior-Steering Technology. In: Verbeek, P.P. en Slob, A. (eds). User Behavior and Technology Development: Shaping Sustainable Relations between Consumers and Technology. Springer.
Brickman, P. & Campbell, D. T. (1971). Hedonic relativism and planning the good society. In: M.H. Appley (Ed.), Adaptation-level theory (pp. 287-302). New York: Academic Press.
Brierley, C. (1996). Acclimation: familiarization to hot humid environments, and its effects on thermal comfort requirements (Doctoral dissertation, M. Sc. thesis, Department of Human Sciences, Loughborough University, UK).
Brolin, B.C. (1979). The Failure of Modern Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Brown, Z. & Cole, R. J. (2009). Influence of occupants’ knowledge on comfort expectations and behaviour. Building Research & Information, 37(3), 227-245.
Brunner, K. M., Spitzer, M., & Christanell, A. (2012). Experiencing fuel poverty. Coping strategies of low-income households in Vienna/Austria. Energy Policy, 49, 53-59.
Buenstorf, G. & Cordes, C. (2008). Can sustainable consumption be learned? A model of cultural evolution.
Ecological Economics 67: 646 – 657.
Buratti, C. & Moretti, E. (2012). Experimental performance evaluation of aerogel glazing systems. Applied Energy, 97, 430-437.
Burger, J.M. & Caldwell, D.F. (2008). The Effects of Monetary Incentives and Labeling on the Foot-in-the-Door Effect: Evidence for a Self-Perception Process. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 25 (3). 235-241.
Bushnell, S.M. & Orr, F.B. (1915). District Heating A Brief Exposition of the Development of District Heating and Its Position Among Public Utilities. Heating and ventilating magazine co.
Butala, V. & Muhič, S. 2007. Perception of air quality and the thermal environment in offices. Indoor Built Environ 16(4), 302-310.
Cabanac, M. (1971). Physiological Role of Pleasure. Science, New Series, Vol. 173, No. 4002. 1103-1107. Cabeza, L. F., Castell, A., Barreneche, C., De Gracia, A., & Fernández, A. I. (2011).Materials used as PCM in ther-
mal energy storage in buildings: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(3), 1675-1695.
Carr, N. (2014). De Glazen Kooi. Amsterdam: Maven Publishing.
Carrico, A.R., Vandenbergh, M.P., Stern, P.C, Gardner, G.T., Dietz, T. & Gilligan, J.M.(2011.) Energy and Climate Change: Key Lessons for Implementing the Behavioral Wedge. Winter. Journal of Energy & Environmental Law. 61-67.
Carrus, G., Passafaro, P. & Bonnes, M. (2008).Emotions, habits and rational choices in ecological behaviors: The case of recycling and use of public transportation. Journal of Environmental Psychology 28. 51–62.
Cave, N. & Dominik, A. (2016). One more time with feeling. Iconoclast.
Cena, K. & De Dear, R. (2001). Thermal comfort and behavioural strategies in office buildings located in a hot-arid climate. Journal of Thermal Biology 26 .409–414.
Capitaine, L. (2008). In de ban van geluk: het maakbare geluk voor het tribunaal van de Filosofie. Universiteit van Gent.
Cater, C.I. (2007). Playing with risk? participant perceptions of risk and management implications in adventure tourism Tourism Management 27. 317–325.
CEU – Council of the European Union (1996), 1939th Council Meeting, Luxembourg, 25 June 1996.
Chaiken, S. & Baldwin, M.W. (1981). Affective-cognitive consistency and the effect of salient behavioral information on the self-perception of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 41(1). 1-12.
Chapman, J. (2015). Emotionally durable design: objects, experiences and empathy. Routledge.
Chapman, J. (2010). Subject/Object Relationships and Emotionally durable design, In: Cooper, T (ed). Longer Lasting Products: Alternatives to the Throwaway Society, Farnham: Gower Publishing ltd. 61-77.
Chappells, H. & Shove, E. (2003). The environment and the home. Paper for Environment and Human Behaviour Seminar 23rd June 2003, Policy Studies Institute, London.
Chappells, H. & Shove, E. (2004). Comfort: A review of philosophies and paradigms. University of Lancaster. Chappells, H. & Shove, E. (2005). Debating the future of comfort: environmental sustainability, energy con-
sumption and the indoor environment. Building Research & Information, 33(1), 32-40.
Chen, C., Guo, H., Liu, Y., Yue, H. & Wang, C. (2008). A new kind of phase change material (PCM) for energy-storing wallboard. Energy and Buildings,40(5), 882-890.
Chen, H., Ng, S. & Rao, A.R. (2005). Cultural Differences in Consumer Impatience. Journal of Marketing Research Vol. XLII, 291-301.
Chernyshevsky, N. & Katz, M. R. (2014). What is to be Done?. Cornell University Press.
Chirkov, V. I. & Ryan, R. M. (2001). Parent and teacher autonomy-support in Russian and U.S. adolescents: Common effects on well-being and academic motivation. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 32, 618–635.
Chitnis, M., Sorrell, S., Druckman, A., Firth, S. K. & Jackson, T. (2013). Turning lights into flights: Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects for UK households. Energy Policy, 55, 234-250.
Chitnis, M., Sorrell, S., Druckman, A., Firth, S. K. & Jackson, T. (2014). Who rebounds most? Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects for different UK socioeconomic groups. Ecological Economics, 106, 12-32.
Cialdini, R. B. (2003). Crafting normative messages to protect the environment. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(4). 105-109.
Cialdini, R. B., Kallgren, C. A., & Reno, R. R. (1991). A focus theory of normative conduct: A theoretical refinement and reevaluation of the role of norms in human behavior. In: Zanna, M.P. (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology,Vol. 24, 201–233. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Coch, H. (1998). Bioclimatism in vernacular architecture. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2. 67-87. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Cohen, M.A. &
Vandenbergh. (2008). M.P.Consumption, Happiness, and Climate Change. October RFF DP 08-39.
Cohen, R., Ruyssevelt, P., Standeven, M., Bordass, W. & Leaman, A. (1999). Building intelligence in use: lessons from the Probe project. Usable Buildings, UK.
Cohen, S., Evans, G.w., Stokols, D. & Krantz, D.S. (1986). Personal control and environmental stress. In: Cohen, S., Evans, G.W, Stokols, D & Krantz, D.S. (Eds.), Behavior, health and environment at stress. New York: Plenum.
Cole R.J., Robinson J., Brown Z. & O’Shea M. (2008). Re-contextualizing the notion of comfort. Building Research and Information 36(4), 323-336.
Compagno, A. (1995). Intelligent Glass Facades: Material. Practice, Design, Birkhauser Verlag, AG, Switzerland.
Conzola, V.C. & Wogalter, M.S. (1999). Using voice and print directives and warnings to supplement product manual instructions. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 23 (1999) 549—556
Cook, A. J., Kerr, G. N. & Moore, K. (2002). Attitudes and intentions towards purchasing GM food. Journal of Economic Psychology, 23, 557-572.
Cooke, A. & Fielding, K. (2009). Fun environmentalism! Potential contributions of autonomy supportive psychology to developing low carbon lifestyles in Australian households. Proceedings of the Environmental Research Event 2009, Noosa, QLD.
Cooper, J. & Fazio, R.H. (1984). A new look at dissonance theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 17, 229–266.
Cooper, T. (Ed.). (2016). Longer lasting products: alternatives to the throwaway society. Farnham: Gower Publishing ltd.
Cornelissen, G., Pandelaere, M., Warlop, L. & Dewitte, S. (2008). Positive cueing: Promoting sustainable consumer behavior by cueing common environmental behaviors as environmental. Intern. J. of Research in Marketing 25. 46–55.
Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (1997). Evolutionary Psychology: A Primer. Center for Evolutionary Psychology. University of California. http://www.cep.ucsb.edu/primer.html.
Coupland, A. (2011). Generatie A. Meulenhoff.
Crilly, N., Moultrie, J., & Clarkson, P. J. (2004). Seeing things: consumer response to the visual domain in product design. Design studies, 25(6), 547-577.
Crompton, T. & Kasser, T. 2010. Human Identity: A Missing Link in Environmental Campaigning. www.environmentmagazine.org. 23-33.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. & LeFevre, J. (1989). Optimal Experience in Work and Leisure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 56, No. 5. 815-822.
Čubrić, I. S., Skenderi, Z., Mihelić-Bogdanić, A. & Andrassy, M. (2012). Experimental study of thermal resistance of knitted fabrics. Experimental thermal and fluid science, 38, 223-228.
Cushman, P. (1990), Why the Self Is Empty: Toward a Historically Situated Psychology. American Psychologist, 45 (5). 599–611.
Dahlin, K. B. & Behrens, D. M. (2005). When is an invention really radical?: Defining and measuring technological radicalness. Research Policy, 34(5), 717-737.
Dai, A. (2013). Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models. Nature Climate Change 3. 52–58.
Darby, S. (2006). The effectiveness of feedback on energy consumption. A Review for DEFRA of the Literature on Metering, Billing and direct Displays, 486, 2006.
Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P. & Warshaw, P. R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models.Management science, 35(8),982-1003.
De Carli, M., Olesen, B. W., Zarrella, A. & Zecchin, R. (2007). People’s clothing behaviour according to external weather and indoor environment. Building and Environment, 42(12), 3965-3973.
De Dear, R. J. (2004). Thermal comfort in practice. Indoor Air 14(s7), 32-39.
De Dear, R. J. (2011). Revisiting an old hypothesis of human thermal perception: alliesthesia. Building Research & Information 39(2), 108 –117.
De Dear, R. J., Akimoto, T., Arens, E.A., Brager, G., Candido, C., Cheong, K.W.D., Li, B., Nishihara, N., Sekhar, S.C., Tanabe, S., Toftum, J., Zhang, H. & Zhu, Y. (2013). Progress In thermal comfort research over the last twenty years. Indoor Air.
De Dear, R. J. & Brager, G.S. (2002). Thermal Comfort in naturally ventilated buildings: revisions to ASHEA Standard 55, Energy and Buildings 34, 549-561.
De Dear, R.J. Brager, G.S. and Cooper, D. (1997). Developing an adaptive model of thermal comfort and preference, Final Report ASHRAE RP-884. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.
De Dear, R. J., Brager, G. S., Reardon, J. & Nicol, F. (1998). Developing an adaptive model of thermal comfort and preference/Discussion. ASHRAE transactions, 104, 145-167.
De Vaan, C. F. M., Wiedenhoff, F. J. M. & Hensen, J. L. M. (2009). Massa is genuanceerde ballast. Bouwen met Staal, Vol. 42, No. 211, p. 42-46.
De Vaan, C. F. M., Wiedenhoff, J., J. M. & Hensen, J. L. M. (2010). De mythe thermische massa. TVVL. Vol 39, No. 7/8. 28-31.
De Young, R. (2000). Expanding and Evaluating Motives for Environmentally Responsible Behavior. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 56, No. 3. 509–526.
De Zwart, H. F., Stanghellini, C. & Van der Knaap, L. P. M. (2010). Hoog isolerende en lichtdoorlatende schermconfiguraties. Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen.
Deci, E. L., Connell, J. P. & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Self-determination in a work organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 580-590.
Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C. & Leone, D. R. (1994). Facilitating internalization: The self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality, 62, 119–142.
Deci, E.L & Ryan, R.M. (1987). The Support of Autonomy and the Control of Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1987, Vol. 53, No. 6,1024-1037
Deci, E.L & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The ‘What’ and ‘Why’ of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior. Psychological Inquiry. Vol. 11, No. 4. 227–268.
Deng, S., Dalibard, A., Martin, M., Dai, Y. J., Eicker, U. & Wang, R. Z. (2011). Energy supply concepts for zero energy residential buildings in humid and dry climate. Energy conversion and management, 52(6), 24552460.
Deuble, M. P. & De Dear, R. J. (2012). Green occupants for green buildings: the missing link?. Building and Environment, 56, 21-27.
Diamond, J. (2008, January 2). What is your consumption factor? [Opinion editorial]. New York Times.
Dickens, C. (1843). A Christmas Carol. London: Chapman & Hall.
Diener, E. (2009). Subjective well-being. In The science of well-being (pp. 11-58). Springer Netherlands. Diekman, A. & Preisendörfer, P. (2003). Green and Greenback : The Behavioral Effects of Environmental Attitudes in Low-Cost and High-Cost Situations. Rationality and Society 15: 441.
Dion, K., Berscheid, E. & Walster, E. (1972). What is beautiful is good. Journal of personality and social psychology, 24(3), 285.
DiSalvo, C. (2012). Adversarial Design, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2012. p. 5.
Dobson, A. (2007). Environmental Citizenship: Towards Sustainable Development.Sustainable Development 15, 276–285.
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Sathre, R. (2012). Effect of thermal mass on life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete-and a wood-frame building. Applied Energy, 92, 462-472.
Dostoyevsky, F. (2014). Notes from the Underground. Broadview Press.
Dorling, D., Mitchell, R., Shaw, M., Orford, S. & Davey Smith, G. (2000). The Ghost of Christmas Past: health effects of poverty in London in 1896 and 1991. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 321(7276), 1547–1551.
Dorrestijn, S. (2004). Bestaanskunst in de Technologische Cultuur. Over de ethiek van door techniek beïnvloed gedrag. Phd-Thesis Universiteit Twente.
Dorrestijn, S. (2010). Design your own life: Over ethiek en gebruisvriendelijk ontwerpen. In: Huijer, M. & Smits, M. (eds), Moralicide: Nieuwe morele vocabulaires voor technologie. Kampen: Klement. 90-104.
Douglas, M. & Isherwood, B. (1996). The World of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption, Routledge, London, UK and New York, NY.
Drake, S., De Dear, R., Alessi, A. & Deuble, M. (2010). Occupant comfort in naturally ventilated and mixed-mode spaces within air-conditioned offices. Architectural Science Review; Volume 53, Issue 3. 297-306.
Dril, A. V., Gerdes, J., Marbus, S. & Boelhouwer, M. (2013). Energie trends 2012. Policy Studies, 2012, 2011.
Druckman, A., Chitnis, M., Sorrell, S. & Jackson, T. (2011). Missing carbon reductions? Exploring rebound and backfire effects in UK households. Energy Policy, 39(6). 3572-3581.
Duffy, F. (1990). Measuring building performance. Facilities, Vol. 8 No.5. 17-20.
Duijvestein, C. (1997). Drie-stappen strategie. In: Dicke, D.W. en Haas, E.M. (eds). Praktijkboek Duurzaam bouwen. Amsterdam: WEKA Uitgeverij, 20.1-20.10.
Dunne, A. & Raby, F. (2001). Design noir: The secret life of electronic objects. Springer Science & Business Media.
Durmisevic, E. (2006). Transformable building structures: design for disassembly as a way to introduce sustainable engineering to building design & construction. TU Delft, Delft University of Technology.
Easterlin, R. A. (1974). Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence. In: David, P.A., Reder, M.W. (Eds.), Nations and Households in Economic Growth. Academic Press, New York. 89–125.
Easterlin, R. A. (1995). Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all? Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 27. 35–47.
Easterlin, R. A. (2001). Income and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory, 111 ECON. J. 465.
Elliott, R. & Wattanasuwan, K. (1998). Brands as symbolic resources for the construction of identity. International Journal of Advertising, 17(2). 131–145.
Ellis, J. (2013). Statistiek voor de psychologie: GLM en non-parametrische toetsen [Statistics for psychology: GLM and non-parametric tests]. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Boom.
Ellis, J. (2014). Statistiek voor de psychologie: Verdeling van een variabele, samenhang tussen twee variabelen. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Boom.
Emmerich, R. (2004). A Day after Tomorrow. Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.
Eurobarometer – Climate Change (2014) uitgevoerd door TNS Opinion & Social op het verzoek van de Europese Commisie Directoraat-Generaal Climate Action.
Erb, E. (2010). Wintergefilde vom Zug aus. Meins. Berlin: Roughbooks.
Ericksen, M.K., (1997). Using self-congruity and ideal congruity to predict purchase intention: a European perspective. Journal of Euro-Marketing 6, 41–56.
Evans, J. M. (2007). The comfort triangles: a new tool for bioclimatic design (Doctoral Dissertation), TU Delft, Delft University of Technology.
Evans, L., Maio, G.R., Corner, A., Hodgetts, C.J., Sameera, A. & Hahn, U. (2013). Self-interest and pro-environmental behavior. Nature Climate Change; Vol 3; February. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1662.
Faddegon, K. (2009). Psychologische verschillen in keuzegedrag. . In: Tiemeijer, W. L, Thomas, C. A. & Prast, H.M. (eds). De menselijke beslisser over de psychologie van Keuze en gedrag. WRR. Amsterdam University Press.
Faiers, A., Cook, M. & Neame, C. (2007). Towards a contemporary approach for understanding consumer behaviour in the context of domestic energy use. Energy Policy 35. 4381–4390.
Fanger, O. (1970). Thermal Comfort Analysis and Applications in Environmental Engineering, New York, McGraw Hill.
Farbotko, C. & Lazrus, H. (2012). The first climate refugees? Contesting global narratives of climate change in Tuvalu. Global Environmental Change, 22 (2). 382-390.
Feather, N. T. (1982). Expectations and actions: Expectancy-value models in psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Feather, N. T. (1995). Values, valences, and choice: The influence of values on the perceived attractiveness and choice of alternatives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 1135–1151.
Fehr, E. & Schmidt, K.M. (1999). A theory of fairness, competition, and cooperation. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114. 817-868.
Fenko, A., Schifferstein, H. N. & Hekkert, P. (2010). Looking hot or feeling hot: What determines the product experience of warmth?. Materials & Design, 31(3), 1325-1331.
Ferguson, S., Siddiqi, A., Lewis, K. & De Weck, O. (2007) Flexible and reconfigurable systems: nomenclature and review. In: Proceedings of ASME2007 International design engineering technical conferences & computers and information in engineering conference.
Fernández-Galiano, L. (2000). Fire and Memory. MIT Press
Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using SPSS statistics. London, Sage.
Fielding, K. S., McDonald, R. & Louis, W. R. (2008). Theory of planned behaviour, identity and intentions to engage in environmental activism. Journal of environmental psychology, 28(4), 318-326.
Fieldson, R. (2004). Architecture & Environmentalism: Movements & Theory in Practice. FORUM, 6(1), 20-33.
Fischer, E.M. & Knutti, R. (2015). Anthropogenic contribution to global occurrence of heavy-precipitation and high-temperature extremes. Nature Climate Change. 5, 560–564.
Fischer, J., Dyball, R., Fazey, I., Gross, C., Dovers, S., Ehrlich, P. R., ... & Borden, R. J. (2012). Human behavior and sustainability. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 10(3), 153-160.
Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Fisk, W.J. & Rosenfeld, A.H. (1998). Estimates of improved productivity and health from better indoor environments. Indoor Air, 7(3), 158-172.
Fitch, J. M. (1972). American Building: The Environmental Forces That Shape It.Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company.
Fitch, J. M., & Branch, D. P. (1960). Primitive architecture and climate. Scientific American, 203, 134-144. Fletcher, K., Dewberry, E. & Goggin, P. (2001). Sustainable Consumption by Design, In: Cohen, M. and Murphy, J., (eds) Exploring Sustainable Consumption: Conceptual Issues and Policy Perspectives, Elsevier.
Ford, E. R. (2003). The details of modern architecture (Vol. 2). Mit Press. Ford, H. & Crowther, S. (2005). My life and work. Cosimo, Inc.
Fountain, M., Brager, G., & De Dear, R. (1996). Expectations of indoor climate control. Energy and Buildings, 24(3), 179-182.
Frampton, K. (2001). Moderne architectuur: een kritische geschiedenis. Boom Koninklijke Uitgevers. Frank, R. H. (1999). Luxury fever. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Frank, R. H. (2004). How Not to Buy Happiness. Daedalus, Vol. 133, No. 2, 69-79.
Freeman, P. K. & Kunreuther, H. (2002). Environmental risk management for developing countries. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance 27 (2), 196–214.
Freire-González, J. (2011). Methods to empirically estimate direct and indirect rebound effect of energy-saving technological changes in households. Ecological modelling, 223(1), 32-40.
Frey, B. S. & Meier, S. (2004). Social comparisons and pro-social behavior: Testing conditional cooperation in a field experiment. The American Economic Review 94(5), 1717-1722.
Frey, B. S. & Stutzer, A. (2002). What can economists learn from happiness research? Journal of Economic Literature, 40, 402–435.
Fricke, E. & Schulz, A. P. (2005). Design for Changeability (DfC): Principles to Enable Changes in Systems Throughout Their Entire Lifecycle. Systems Engineering, 8(4), 342-359.
Friedman, D. & Ostrov, D. N. (2008). Conspicuous consumption dynamics. Games and Economic Behavior 64, 121–145.
Frissen, V. & Van Lieshout, M. (2006). ICT in everyday life: The role of the user. In: Verbeek, P. P. & Slob, A. (eds). User Behavior and Technology Development: Shaping Sustainable Relations between Consumers and Technology. Springer. 253-261.
Frontczak, M. & Wargocki, P. (2011). Literature survey on how different factors influence human comfort in indoor environments. Building and Environment, 46(4), 922-937.
Fuad-Luke, A. (2010). Adjusting our metabolism: Slowness and nourishing rituals of delay in anticipation of a post-consumer age. In: Cooper, T. (ed) Longer Lasting Products: Alternatives to the Throwaway Society, Farnham: Gower Publishing ltd, 133-156.
Fujii, S. (2006). Environmental concern, attitude toward frugality, and ease of behavior as determinants of pro-environmental behavior intentions. Journal of environmental psychology, 26(4), 262-268.
Galbraight, R. (2016). Het slechte pad. Boekerij.
Galinsky, A. D., Magree, J. C., Gruenfeld, D. H. & Whitson, J. A. (2008). Power Reduces the Press of the Situation: Implications for Creativity, Conformity, and Dissonance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 95, No. 6, 1450–1466.
Gao, J., Yu, W. & Pan, N. (2007). Structures and properties of the goose down as a material for thermal insulation. Textile Research Journal, 77(8), 617-626.
Gardner, G.T. & Stern, P.C. (2008). The Short List: The Most Effective Actions U.S. Households Can Take to Curb Climate Change. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development. Volume 50, Issue 5, 12-25.
Gatersleben, B., White, E., Jackson, T. & Uzzell, D. (2010) Values and sustainable lifestyles, 22 Architectural Science Review, 53.
Geller, E. S., Winett, R. A. & Everett, P. B. (1982). Preserving the environment: New strategies for behavior change (Vol. 102). Pergamon Pr.
Gibson, P. & Lee, C. (2006). Application of nanofiber technology to nonwoven thermal insulation. Army soldier systems command Natick ma.
Gifford, R. (2011). The Dragons of Inaction. Psychological Barriers That Limit Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation. American Psychological Association Vol. 66, No. 4, 290–302.
Gigerenzer, G. (2001). The Adaptive Toolbox, in: Gigerenzer, G. & Selten, R. (eds) Bounded Rationality – The Adaptive Toolbox. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Gigerenzer, G. & Goldstein, D. G. (1996). Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way: Models of Bounded Rationality, Psychological Review, 103, 650-669.
Gigliotti, L. M. (1992). Environmental attitudes: 20 years of change? The Journal of Environmental Education, 24(1), 15–26.
Gilg, A., Barr, S. & Ford, N. (2005). Green consumption or sustainable lifestyles? Identifying the sustainable consumer. Futures, 37(6), 481-504.
Gill, Z., Tierney, M., Pegg, I. & Allan, N. (2010). Low-energy dwellings: the contribution of behaviours to actual performance. Build Res Inform; 38(5), 491-508.
Gissen, D. (2002). Big and green: toward sustainable architecture in the 21st century. Princeton Architectural Press.
Glass, D. C., Singer, J. E. & Pennebaker, J. W. (1977). Behavioral and physiological effects of uncontrollable environmental events. In: Perspectives on environment and behavior, 131-151.
Global Footprint Network. (2009). Ecological footprint standards 2009. Global Footprint Network, Oakland. Goldsmith, R. (1960). Use of clothing records to demonstrate acclimatisation to cold in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 15(5), 776-780.
Gottmann, J. (1966). ‘Why the Skyscraper?. Geographical review, 190-212.
Gottron, F. (2001). Energy efficiency and the rebound effect: does increasing efficiency decrease demand. In CRS Report for Congress, 1-4.
Gou, Z., Prasad, D. & Siu-Yu Lau, S. (2013). Are green buildings more satisfactory and comfortable? Habitat International 39, 156-161.
Gowdy, J. M. (2007). Behavioral Economics and Climate Change Policy. Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. New York.
Grant, L. K. (2010). Sustainability: from excess to aesthetics. Behavior and Social Issues, 19, 5.
Gratia, E. & De Herde, A. (2004). Optimal operation of a south double-skin facade. Energy and Buildings, 36(1), 41-60.
Gratia, E. & De Herde, A. (2004a). Natural cooling strategies efficiency in an office building with a double-skin façade. Energy and buildings, 36(11), 1139-1152.
Greening, L. A., Greene, D. L. & Difiglio, C. (2000). Energy efficiency and consumption—the rebound effect—a survey. Energy policy, 28(6), 389-401.
Griffin, J. (1986). Well-being: Its meaning, measurement, and moral importance. Oxford, England: Clarendon Griskevicius, V.,Tybur, J.M. & Van den Bergh, B. (2010). Going Green to Be Seen: Status, Reputation, and Conspicuous Conservation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2010, Vol. 98, No. 3, 392–404.
Grooten, M., Almond, R., & McLellan, R. (Eds.). (2012). Living planet report 2012: Biodiversity, biocapacity and better choices. World Wide Fund for Nature.
Gropius, W. (1935; 1965). The new architecture and the Bauhaus. Cambridge, MIT Press.
Grothmann, T. & Patt, A. (2005). Adaptive capacity and human cognition:The process of individual adaptation to climate change Global Environmental Change 15. 199–213.
Gruber, V. & Schlegelmilch, B.B. (2014). How Techniques of Neutralization Legitimize Normand Attitude-Inconsistent Consumer Behavior. J Bus Ethics. 121:29–45.
Guerra Santin, O., Itard, L. & Visscher, H. (2009). The effect of occupancy and building characteristics on energy use for space and water heating in Dutch residential stock. Energy and Buildings 41. 1223–1232.
Guggenheim, D. (2006). An inconveniant truth. Laurence Bender Productions.
Guillén, M. F. (2006). The Taylorized beauty of the mechanical: scientific management and the rise of modernist architecture. Princeton University Press.
Guiot, J. & Cramer, W. (2016). Climate change: The 2015 Paris Agreement thresholds and Mediterranean basin ecosystems. Science, 354(6311), 465-468.
Guy, S. & Farmer, G. (2001). Reinterpreting sustainable architecture: the place of technology. Journal of Architectural Education, 54(3), 140-148.
Guy, S., & Shove, E. (2000). The sociology of energy, buildings and the environment: Constructing knowledge, designing practice (Vol. 5). Psychology Press.
Haas, R. & Biermayr, P. (2000). The rebound effect for space heating Empirical evidence from Austria. Energy policy, 28(6), 403-410.
Hagger, M.S, Wood, C. & Stiff, C. (2010). Ego Depletion and the Strength Model of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis, Psychological Bulletin Vol 136(4), Jul. 495-525.
Haigh D. (1981). User response in environmental control, in: Hawkes D. and Owers J. (eds), The Architecture of Energy, Construction Press, Harlow, pp 45-63.
Hamilton, C. (2010). Consumerism, self-creation and prospects for a new ecological consciousness. Journal of Cleaner Production 18. 571–575.
Hamilton, C. (2015). Requiem for a species. Why we resist the truth about Climate Change. London: Routledge. Hand, M., Shove, E. & Southerton, D. (2005). Explaining showering: a discussion of the material, conventional, and temporal dimensions of practice. Sociological Research Online, 10(2).
Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, New Series, Vol. 162, No. 3859. 1243-1248. Harland, P., Staats, H. & Wilke, H. A. M. (2007). Situational and Personality Factors as Direct or Personal Norm
Mediated Predictors of Pro-environmental Behavior: Questions Derived From Norm-activation Theory. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 29(4). 323–334.
Hasselaar, E. (2008). Health risk associated with passive houses: An exploration. Indoor Air, 17-22 August, Copenhagen, Denmark Paper ID: 689.
Hatfield, J. & Job, R. S. (2001). Optimism bias about environmental degradation: The role of the range of impact of precautions. Journal of environmental Psychology, 21(1), 17-30.
Hawkes, D. (1982). The theoretical basis of comfort in the ‘selective’ control of environments Energy and Buildings 5. 127–134.
Hawkes, D. (2012), Architecture and Climate, an environmental history of British Architecture, 1600-2000.
Haytink, T. G. & Valk, H. J. J. (2013). Energieneutrale toekomst voor de sociale woningbouw. Nieman, Zwolle. Haytink, T. G. & Valk, H. J. J. (2013a). Onderzoek Woongebouwen EPC < 0,4. Nieman, Zwolle.
Healy, S., (2008). Air-conditioning and the “homogenization” of people and built environments. Building Research & Information. 36(4). 312 322.
Hearle, J. W. & Morton, W. E. (2008). Physical properties of textile fibres. Elsevier.
Heerwagen, J. H. (1998). Design, productivity and well-being: what are the links. In AIA Conference on Highly Effective Facilities, Cincinnati, Ohio, March. 12-14..
Heidegger, M. (1977). The Question concerning Technology and Other Essays, trans. W. Lovitt. New York: Harper & Row.
Heijs, W. M. J. (2006). Household Energy Consumption. Habitual Behavior and Technology. In: Verbeek, P. P. en Slob, A. (eds). User Behavior and Technology Development: Shaping Sustainable Relations between Consumers and Technology. Springer.
Henderson, R. M., & Clark, K. B.. (1990). Architectural Innovation: The Reconfiguration of Existing Product Technologies and the Failure of Established Firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 9–30.
Hendrickx, L. & Schoot Uiterkamp, A. J. M. (2006). Technology and Behavior. The Case of Passenger Transport. In: Verbeek, P.P. en Slob, A. (eds). User Behavior and Technology Development: Shaping Sustainable Relations between Consumers and Technology. Springer, 95-104.
Hens, H., Parijs, W. & Deurinck, M.(2010). Energy consumption for heating and rebound effects. Energy and Buildings 42, 105–110.
Hensen, J. L. M. (1990). Literature review on thermal comfort in transient conditions. Building and Environment, 25(4), 309-316.
Herbers, J. M. (1981). Time resources and laziness in animals. Oecologia,49(2), 252-262.
Hertwig, R & Erev, I. (2009).The description–experience gap in risky choice. Trends in cognitive science. Volume 13, Issue 12, December 2009, 517–523.
Hes, L. (2001). Fast determination of surface moisture absorptivity of smart underwear knits. In International Textile Conference.
Heschong, L. (1979), Thermal Delight in Architecture, Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press.
Higham, J. E. S., Cohen, S. A. & Cavaliere, C. T. (2014). Climate Change, Discretionary Air Travel and the ‘Flyers’ Dilemma’. Journal of Travel Research Vol. 53(4), 462–475.
Hoes, P., Trcka, M., Hensen, J. L. M. & Bonnema, B. H. (2011). Investigating the potential of a novel low-energy house concept with hybrid adaptable thermal storage. Energy Conversion and Management,52(6), 24422447.
Hollnagel, E., & Woods, D. D. (2006). Epilogue: Resilience engineering precepts. Resilience Engineering–Concepts and Precepts, Ashgate, Aldershot, 347-358.
Holmes, M. J. & Hacker, J. N. (2007). Climate change, thermal comfort and energy: Meeting the design challenges of the 21st century. Energy and Buildings, 39(7), 802-814.
Hoogers, J., Gelinck, S. & Trabsky, W. (2004). Bouwen met tijd – Een praktische verkenning naar de samenhang tussen levensduur, kenmerken en de milieubelasting van woningen. Rotterdam: SEV.
Hooper, K. (1986). Architectural design: an analogy. In: Norman, D.A., Draper, S.W. (Eds.). User Centered System Design. Londen: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hopwood, B., Mellor, M. & O’Brien, G. (2005). Sustainable development: mapping different approaches. Sustainable development, 13(1), 38-52.
Horvath, E. P. (1997). Building-related illness and sick building syndrome: from the specific to the vague. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine, 64(6), 303-309.
Howell, R. A. (2011). Lights, camera ... action? Altered attitudes and behaviour in response to the climate change film The Age of Stupid. Global Environmental Change, 21(1), 177-187.
Hoyt, T., Arens, E. & Zhang, H. (2014). Extending air temperature setpoints: Simulated energy savings and design considerations for new and retrofit buildings. Building and Environment. 88, 89-96.
Huizenga, C., Abbaszadeh, S., Zagreus, L. & Arens. E. (2006). Air quality and thermal Comfort in office buildings. Results of a large indoor environmental quality survey. Proceedings, Healthy Buildings 2006, Vol. III, 393397, Lisbon, Portugal, June.
Hulme, M. (2007). Newspaper scare headlines can be counter-productive. Nature Volume 445 22 February, 818.
Humphreys, M. A. (1976). Field Studies of thermal comfort compared and applied. J. Inst. Heat. & Vent. Eng. 44, 5–27.
Humphreys, M. A. (1995). Thermal Comfort and the Habits of Hobbits, in Nicol et al.., Standards for Thermal Comfort, Spin, London.
Humphreys, M. A. (1997). An adaptive approach to thermal comfort criteria. Naturally Ventilated Buildings: Buildings for the senses, the economy and society, 129-139.
Humphreys, M. A. & Hancock, M. (2007). Do people like to feel ‘neutral’?: Exploring the variation of the desired thermal sensation on the ASHRAE scale. Energy Buildings 39(7), 867-874.
Humphreys. M. A. & Nicol, J. F. (1998). Understanding the adaptive approach to thermal comfort. ASHRAE Transactions;104(1), 991-1004.
Humphreys M. A., Nicol J. F. & Raja I.A. (2007). Field studies of indoor thermal comfort And the progress of the adaptive approach. Adv Build Energy Res. 1(1), 55-88.
Humphreys, M. A., Rijal, H. B., & Nicol, J. F. (2013). Updating the adaptive relation between climate and comfort indoors; new insights and an extended database. Building and Environment, 63, 40-55.
Hurst, M., Dittmar, H., Bond, R. & Kasser, T. (2013). The relationship between materialistic values and environmental attitudes and behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology 36, 257-269.
IEA (2011).Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme ECBCS Annual Report 2011 Indraganti, M. (2010). Behavioural adaptation and the use of environmental controls in summer for thermal comfort in apartments in India. Energy and Buildings 42, 1019–1025.
Inglehart, R. (1977). The silent revolution: Changing values and political styles among Western publics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
IPCC (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Stocker, T. F., Qin, D. Plattner, G. K., Tignor, M. Allen, S.K., Boschung, J. Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V. & Midgley, P. M. (eds.)). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Isaac, M., & Van Vuuren, D. P. (2009). Modeling global residential sector energy demand for heating and air conditioning in the context of climate change. Energy policy, 37(2), 507-521.
Isen, A. M. (1993). Positive affect and decision making. In: Lewis, M. & Haviland, J.M. (eds). Handbook of Emotions, 261-277. New York: Guilford.
ISO, 1998. ISO 9241-11 Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) Part 11: Guidance on usability. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.
ISSO. (2014). ISSO publicatie 74. Thermische behaaglijkheid. Eisen en achtergronden betreffende het thermisch binnenklimaat in kantoren en vergelijkbare utiliteitsbouw. Rotterdam: ISSO.
IUPS TC. (2001). Glossary of terms for thermal physiology. Third edition. Revised by The Commission for Thermal Physiology of the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS Thermal Commission). The Japanese Journal of Physiology; 51, 245-80.
Iwata, O. (2001). Attitudinal determinants of environmentally responsible behavior. Social Behavior and Personality, 29, 183–190.
Jacobs, P., Van Dijken, F. & Boerstra, A. (2007). Prestatie-eisen ventilatie in klaslokalen. Beperken infectieziekten en verbeteren leerprestaties. TVVL. Juli/Augustus, 780-783.
Jackson, T. (2005). Live Better by Consuming Less? Is There a “Double Dividend” in Sustainable Consumption? Journal of Industrial Ecology. Volume 9, Number 1–2, 19-36.
Jaffari, S.D. & Matthews, B. (2009). From occupying to inhabiting – a change in conceptualizing Comfort. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 8 01.
Jain, R. K., Taylor, J. E. & Culligan, P. J. (2013). Investigating the impact eco-feedback information representation has on building occupant energy consumption behavior and savings. Energy and Buildings, 64, 408-414.
Jansen, C. & Balijon, S. (2002). How do people use instruction guides?: Confirming and disconfirming patterns of use. Document Design, 3(3), 195-204.
Jelle, B. P., Kalnæs, S. E. & Gao, T. (2015). Low-emissivity materials for building applications: a state-of-the-art review and future research perspectives. Energy and Buildings, 96, 329-356.
Jelle, B. P. (2011). Traditional, state-of-the-art and future thermal building insulation materials and solutions– Properties, requirements and possibilities. Energy and Buildings, 43(10), 2549-2563.
Jelsma, J. (1999). Philosophy meets design, or how the masses are missed (and revealed again) in environmental policy and ecodesign. Consumption, Everyday Life and Sustainability, Centre for the Study of Environmental Change, Lancaster University.
Jelsma, J. (2006). Designing ‘moralized’ products In: Verbeek, P. P. & Slob, A. (eds). User Behavior and Technology Development: Shaping Sustainable Relations between Consumers and Technology. Springer.
Jentsch, M. F., Bahaj, A. S. & James, P. A. (2008). Climate change future proofing of buildings—Generation and assessment of building simulation weather files. Energy and Buildings, 40(12), 2148-2168.
Jess, A. (2010). What might be the energy demand and energy mix to reconcile the world’s pursuit of welfare and happiness with the necessity to preserve the integrity of the biosphere? Energy Policy 38, 4663–4678.
Jevons, W. S. (1906). The Coal Question: Can Britain Survive? first published in 1865, republished by Macmillan. London, UK.
Jones, P.T. & De Meyere, V. (2009). Terra Reversa. De transitie naar rechtvaardige duurzaamheid. Utrecht: Uitgeverij Van Arkel.
Joudi, A., Svedung, H., Bales, C. & Rönnelid, M. (2011). Highly reflective coatings for interior and exterior steel cladding and the energy efficiency of buildings. Applied energy, 88(12), 4655-4666.
Jürgenhake, B. (2016). De gevel – een intermediair element tussen buiten en binnen. Over het tonen en vertonen van het twintigste-eeuwse woongebouw in Nederland. Phd-Thesis Universiteit Delft
Kahneman, D. (2011). Ons feilbare denken. Vertaald uit het Engels door: Van Huizen, P. & De Vries, J. Oorspronkelijke titel: Thinking, Fast and Slow; Business Contact.
Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L. & Thaler, R. H. (1991). Anomalies: The Endowment Effect, Loss Aversion, and Status Quo Bias. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 5, No. 1, 193-206.
Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. (1984). Choices, Values, and Frames. American Psychologist. Vol. 39, No. 4, 341350.
Kaplan, S. (2000). Human Nature and Environmentally Responsible Behavior. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 56, No. 3, 491–508.
Kaplan, H., Hill, K., Lancaster, J. & Hurtado, A. M. (2000). A Theory of Human Life History Evolution: Diet, Intelligence, and Longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology, 156-185.
Kasser, T. (2011). Cultural Values and the Well-Being of Future Generations: A Cross-National Study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2011 42: 206.
Kasser, T. & Sheldon, K. (2002). What makes for a Merry Christmas? Journal of Happiness Studies 3, 313–329. Kaufmann, L. (2009). Utilities Turn Their Customers Green, With Envy, New York Times, January 31.
Kaynakli, O. (2012). A review of the economical and optimum thermal insulation thickness for building applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(1), 415-425.
Keizer, K., Lindenberg, S. & Steg, L. (2013). The Importance of Demonstratively Restoring Order. PLoS ONE 8(6): e65137. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065137.
Kempton, W. & Lutzenheiser, L. (Eds.) (1992). Energy and Buildings 18 (3–4), 171–176.
Khan, U. & Dhar, R.(2007). Where There Is a Way, Is There a Will? The Effect of Future Choices on Self-Control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Vol. 136, No. 2, 277–288.
Khaslavsky, J., & Shedroff, N. (1999). Understanding the seductive experience. Communications of the ACM, 42(5), 45-49.
Khazzoom, J. D. (1980). Economic implications of mandated efficiency in standards for household appliances. The Energy Journal, 1(4), 21-40.
Kibert, C. J. & Grosskopf, K. (2006). Radical sustainable construction: envisioning next-generation green buildings. Rethinking Sustainable Construction 2006 (RSC06), Sarasota, Florida, USA, 19-22 September.
Kim, M. J., Cho, M. E. & Kim, J. T. (2013). Energy use of households in apartment complexes with different service life. Energy and Buildings, 66, 591-598.
Kingma, B. & Van Marken Lichtenbelt, M. (2015). Energy consumption in buildings and female thermal demand Nature Climate Change 5, 1054–1056.
Klemperer, P. (1987). Markets with consumer switching costs. The quarterly journal of economics, 375-394.
Klucharev, V. & Smidts, A. (2009). Zit irrationaliteit in de aard van de mens? De neurobiologie van besluitvorming. In: Tiemeijer, W.L., Thomas, C.A. & Prast, H.M. (eds) De menselijke beslisser over de psychologie van keuze en gedrag. WRR. Amsterdam University Press.
Knight, K. W. & Rosa, E. A. (2011). The environmental efficiency of well-being: A cross-national analysis. Social Science Research, 40(3), 931-949.
KNMI. (2014). KNMI’14-klimaatscenario’s voor Nederland; Leidraad voor professionals in klimaatadaptatie, KNMI, De Bilt.
Koens, J. F. & Groeneveld, P. (2006). Kwantitatieve evaluatie van de actie ‘Meten is weten’. Internal report.
Kollmuss, A. & Agyeman, J. 2002. Mind the Gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental Education Research, Vol. 8, No. 3, 239-260.
Korjenic, A., Petránek, V., Zach, J. & Hroudová, J. (2011). Development and performance evaluation of natural thermal-insulation materials composed of renewable resources. Energy and Buildings, 43(9), 2518-2523.
Krippendorff, K. (1989). On the Essential Contexts of Artifacts or on the Proposition that Design is Making Sense (of Things). Design Issues 5, MIT-Press. no. 2, 9–38.
Kuklane, K., Gao, C., Holmér, I., Giedraitytė, L., Bröde, P., Candas, V., ... & Havenith, G. (2007). Calculation of clothing insulation by serial and parallel methods: effects on clothing choice by IREQ and thermal responses in the cold. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 13(2), 103-116.
Kumar Mishra, A. & Ramgopal, M. (2013). Field studies on human thermal comfort: An overview. Building and Environment 64, 94-106.
Kuno, S. (1995). Comfort and pleasantness. In Pan Pacific Symposium on Building and Urban Environmental Conditioning in Asia, Volume 2, Part 2, 383-392. Nagoya, Japan.
Kurvers, S. R., Raue, A. K., Van den Ham, E. R., Leyten, J. L, Juricic, S. M. M. (2013). Robust Climate Design Combines Energy Efficiency with Occupant Health and Comfort. ASHRAE IAQ 2013 Proceedings: Environmental Health in Low Energy Buildings.
Kurvers, S. R., Van der Linden, A., Boerstra, A. & Raue, A. (2005). Adaptieve Temperatuurgrenswaarden ATG). ISSO 74: een nieuwe richtlijn voor de beoordeling van het thermisch binnenklimaat. Deel 1: Theoretische achtergronden.
Kwahk, J. & Han, S. H. (2002). A methodology for evaluating the usability of audiovisual consumer electronic products. Applied ergonomics, 33(5), 419-431.
Kwok, A. (2000), ‘Thermal boredom’, 17th International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Cambridge, UK.
Kwok, A. G. & Rajkovich, N. B. (2010). Addressing climate change in comfort standards. Building and Environment, 45(1), 18-22.
Kwon, J. & Choi, J. (2012). The relationship between environmental temperature and clothing insulation across a year. International journal of biometeorology, 56(5), 887-893.
Kymäläinen, H. R. & Sjöberg, A. M. (2008). Flax and hemp fibres as raw materials for thermal insulations. Building and environment, 43(7), 1261-1269.
Lanzini, P. & Thøgersen, J. (2014). Behavioural spillover in the environmental domain: An intervention study.Journal of Environmental Psychology 40, 381-390.
Latour, B. (1997). De Berlijnse sleutel: En andere lessen van een liefhebber van wetenschap en techniek. Amsterdam: Van Gennep.
Latour, B. (2002), Moraal en technologie: Het einde van de middelen. Krisis. Tijdschrift voor empirische filosofie. 3/3, 3-17.
Laurent, M. H., Allibe, B., Oreszczyn, T., Hamilton, I., Galvin, R. & Tigchelaar, C. (2013). Back to reality: How domestic energy efficiency policies in four European countries can be improved by using empirical data instead of normative calculation.
Layard, R. (2005). Happiness. Lessons from a new science. New York: Penguin Press.
Leaman, A. & Bordass, B. (1999). Productivity in buildings: the killer variables. Building Research & Information. 27 (1), 4-19.
Leaman, A. & Bordass, B. (2001). Assessing building performance in use 4: the Probe occupant surveys and their implications. Building Research & Information Volume 29, Issue 2, 129-143.
Leaman, A. & Bordass, B. (2007). Are users more tolerant of ‘green’ buildings? Building Research & Information 35 (6), 662-673.
Le Corbusier (1931). Towards a new architecture. Courier Corporation. LeCuyer, A. (2008). ETFE: technology and design. Berlin: Birkhäuser Verlag AG.
Lee, R. (2011). The outlook for population growth. Science, 333(6042), 569-573.
Lee, W.L. & Yik, F.W.K. (2004). Regulatory and voluntary approaches for enhancing building energy efficiency. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 30, 477–499.
Leijten, J. L. & Kurvers, S. R. (2006). Robustness of buildings and HVAC systems as a hypothetical construct explaining differences in building related health and comfort symptoms and complaint rates. Energy and Buildings 38, 701–707.
Leijten, J.L. & Kurvers, S. R. (2009).Binnenklimaat in kantoorgebouwen – Onderzoek naar klachten. Praktijkgids Arbeidshygiene, Kluwer.
Leiserowitz, A. A. (2007). Before and after the day after tomorrow: a U.S. study of climate change risk perception, Environment 46 (9), 22–37.
Lennon, J. & McCartney, P. (1966). Tomorrow Never Knows. Revolver. EMI.
Levin, I. P., Schreiber, J., Lauriola, M. & Gaeth, G.J. (2002). A Tale of Two Pizzas: Building up from a Basic Product versus Scaling down from a Fully-Loaded Product Marketing Letters, Vol. 13, 335-344
Levine, M., Ürge-Vorsatz, D., Blok, K., Geng, L., Harvey, D., Lang, S., Levermore, G., Mehlwana, A. M., Mirasgedis, S., Novikova, A., Rilling, J. & Yoshino, H. (2007). Residential and commercial buildings, In: Metz, B., Davidson, O. R., Bosch, P. R., Dave, R. & Meyer, L. A. (eds) Climate Change 2007: Mitigation, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press.
Levy, B. R., & Myers, L. M. (2005). Relationship between respiratory mortality and self-perceptions of aging.
Psychology & Health, 20(5), 553-564.
Lewin, K. (1952). Constructs in field theory . In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers by Kurt Lewin (pp. 30–42). London: Tavistock.
Lewis, M.J., Watson, B., White, K.M. & Tay, R. (2007) Promoting Public Health Messages: Should We Move Beyond Fear-Evoking Appeals in Road Safety, Qualitative Health Research 17, 1, 61-74.
Li, D. H., Yang, L., & Lam, J. C. (2013). Zero energy buildings and sustainable development implications–a review. Energy, 54, 1-10.
Li, Y. (2001). The science of clothing comfort. Textile progress, 31(1-2), 1-135. Lichtenberg, J. J. N. (2005). Slimbouwen. Aeneas, 164.
Lichtenberg, J. J. N., Ham, M. & Hensen, J. L. M. (2012). House of tomorrow today. Presentatie Eindhoven.
Lieten, S. (2012). Literatuurstudie Meer met Bodemenergie (Literature with Soil Energy). Overzicht van kennis en onderzoeksvragen rondom warmte-en koudeopslag (Overview of knowledge and research about thermal storage).
Lilley, D., Lofthouse, V. & Bhamra, T. (2005). Towards Instinctive Sustainable Product Use, Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, UK. In 2nd International Conference: Sustainability Creating the Culture.
Lin, J. C. H. (2005). The Practice of Designing Operable Windows in Office Buildings. M.S. Thesis. Department of Architecture, University of California Berkeley Berkeley, Calif.
Lindén, A. L., Carlsson-Kanyama, A. & Eriksson, B. (2006). Efficient and inefficient aspects of residential energy behaviour: What are the policy instruments for change? Energy policy, 34(14), 1918-1927.
Lindenberg, S. M. (2000). It takes both trust and lack of mistrust: the workings of cooperation and relational signaling in contractual relationships. Journal of Management and Governance, 4, 11-33.
Lindenberg, S. M. (2001) Intrinsic Motivation in a new Light. Kyklos. Volume 54. Fasc 2/3, 317-342. Lindenberg S. M. (2012) How cues in the environment affect normative behavior. In: Steg, L., Van den Berg, A.E.
& De Groot, J.I.M. (eds): Environmental Psychology: An Introduction. (Wiley, New York), 119–128. Lindenberg, S. M. & Steg, L. (2007). Normative, Gain and Hedonic Goal Frames Guiding Environmental Behavior. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 63, No. 1, 117—137.
Lindenberg, S. M. & Stapel, D. (
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.